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The history and causes of the great awakening

The part played by religion in the shaping of the American mind, while sometimes overstated, remains crucial.

  • Second, they rejected Scriptural revelation and the sovereign , father-figure conception of the Judeo-Christian God in favor of a more impersonal force having created the universe;
  • Indeed this religious upheaval had marked political consequences;
  • Whiggish political thought denounced divine right of kings and complacent obedience, and much of the Anglican clergy easily accepted allegiance to the new monarchs;
  • Ordinary people were encouraged to make a personal connection with God, instead of relying on a minister;
  • One of the leading voices of opposition was Charles Chauncy, a minister in Boston.

Over the first century and a half of colonial life, the strong religious impulses present in the original… A number of conditions in the colonies contributed to the revival: The revival took place primarily among the Dutch Reformed, Congregationalists, Presbyterians, Baptists, and some Anglicans, almost all of whom were Calvinists. The Great Awakening has been seen, therefore, as a development toward an evangelical Calvinism.

7 Enlightenment & Great Awakening

One of the great figures of the movement was George Whitefieldan Anglican priest who was influenced by John Wesley but was himself a Calvinist. Visiting America in 1739—40, he preached up and down the colonies to vast crowds in open fields, because no church building would hold the throngs he attracted. Although he gained many converts, he was attacked, as were other revival clergy, for criticizing the religious experience of others, for stimulating emotional excesses and dangerous religious delusionsand for breaking into and preaching in settled parishes without proper invitation by ecclesiastical authorities.

Jonathan Edwards was the great academician and apologist of the Great Awakening. A Congregational pastor at Northampton, Massachusetts, he preached justification by faith alone with remarkable effectiveness.

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He also attempted to redefine the psychology of religious experience and to help those involved in the revival to discern what were true and false works of the Spirit of God. His chief opponent was Charles Chauncya liberal pastor of the First Church in Boston, who wrote and preached against the revival, which he considered an outbreak of extravagant emotion.

The Great Awakening stemmed the tide of Enlightenment rationalism among a great many people in the colonies. One of its results was division within denominations, for some members supported the revival and others rejected it. The revival stimulated the growth of several educational institutions, including Princeton, Brown, and Rutgers universities and Dartmouth College.

The increase of dissent from the established churches during this period led to a broader toleration of religious diversityand the democratization of the religious experience fed the fervour that resulted in the American Revolution.

Great Awakening

Edwards maintained that the Spirit of God withdrew from Northampton in the 1740s, and some supporters found that the revival came to an end in that decade.

Generally less emotional than the Great Awakening, the Second Awakening led to the founding of colleges and seminaries and to the organization of mission societies. Kentucky was also influenced by a revival during this period. The custom of camp-meeting revivals developed out of the Kentucky revival and was an influence on the American frontier during the 19th century.

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