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The characteristics of the pancreas in the human body

Function of the Pancreas The pancreas has two functional components The pancreas is really two glands that are intimately mixed together into one organ. These exocrine cells release their enzymes into a series of progressively larger tubes called ducts that eventually join together to form the main pancreatic duct. The main pancreatic duct runs the length of the pancreas and drains the fluid produced by the exocrine cells into the duodenum, the first part of the small bowel.

The second functional component of the pancreas is the "endocrine" pancreas. The endocrine pancreas is composed of small islands of cells, called the islets of Langerhans.

The Pancreas Facts

The pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, work together to maintain the proper level of sugar glucose in the blood. Blood sugar is used by the body for energy.

  • This makes the liver release sugars, which keeps your brain and other organs that depend on sugar glucose happy;
  • This condition is known as acute pancreatitis;
  • Pancreatic Health Problems If the ducts leading from the pancreas are blocked in some way — such as when a gallstone blocks the ampulla of Vater - pancreatic fluids can build up in the pancreas and may then become activated so that they digest the pancreas itself;
  • CCK stimulates these cells to produce and secrete pancreatic juice that has a high concentration of digestive enzymes;
  • Physiology of the Pancreas Digestion The exocrine portion of the pancreas plays a major role in the digestion of food.

An understanding of the two functional components of the pancreas is important for two reasons. First, as they grow large tumors of the pancreas will interfere with both of these important bodily functions.

When tumors block the exocrine system, patients can develop pancreatitis and pain from the abnormal release of digestive enzymes into the substance of the pancreas instead of into the bowel, and they can develop digestive problems, such as diarrhea, from the incomplete digestion of food.

When tumors destroy the endocrine function of the pancreas, patients can develop sugar diabetes abnormally high blood sugar levels.

The Pancreas Center

The second reason that the two functional components of the pancreas are important to understand is that tumors can arise in either component. The vast majority of tumors of the pancreas arise in the exocrine part and these cancers look like pancreatic ducts under the microscope.

These tumors are therefore called "ductal adenocarcinomas," or simply "adenocarcinoma," or even more simply "pancreatic cancer. How does it all fit together? The pancreas is an integral part of the digestive system, and the flow of the digestive system is often altered during the surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer. Therefore it is helpful to review the normal flow of food and the flow of digestive enzymes of the pancreas before reading about surgical treatment.

Food is carried from the mouth to the stomach by the esophagus. The esophagus is a tube that descends from the mouth down into the abdomen.

  • Regulation of Pancreatic Function The pancreas is controlled by both the autonomic nervous system ANS and the endocrine system;
  • Pancreatic juice is a mixture of water, salts, bicarbonate, and many different digestive enzymes.

In the abdomen, the esophagus empties into the stomach where digestive acids made by the stomach break down the food. From the stomach, the partially digested food flows directly into the first part of the small intestine, called the duodenum.

Anatomy of the Pancreas

The duodenum then leads to the other parts of the small bowel, the jejunum and ileum, where further digestion of food takes place. The ileum then empties into the large bowel also known as the large intestineand finally completely digestive material passes out of the body through the anus. Bile is important to understand because the flow of bile is often blocked by pancreatic cancers, and because the flow of bile is altered during surgery for pancreatic cancer.

Bile is a greenish-yellow fluid that aids in the digestion of fats in food.

  1. When your sugar glucose is low, the pancreas releases another hormone called glucagon. The head of the pancreas, which connects to the duodenum, is the widest and most medial region of the organ.
  2. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase are protein-digesting enzymes that break proteins down into their amino acid subunits.
  3. Maltase secreted by the small intestine then breaks maltose into the monosaccharide glucose, which the intestines can directly absorb. Each disorder may exhibit different symptoms and requires different treatments.

After being produced by cells in the liver, the bile travels down through the bile ducts which merge with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The gallbladder stores extra bile until needed. The common bile duct then passes through the head of the pancreas and joins the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of Vater which then empties into the duodenum.

The flow of bile is indicated by the green arrows. Understanding that the tube duct carrying bile from the liver passes through the pancreas on its way to the intestine, helps us understand why some people with pancreatic cancer develop jaundice an abnormal yellowing of the skin and eyes. Pancreatic cancers in the head of the pancreas the bile duct passes through the head of the pancreas can block the bile duct and in so doing can block the flow of bile out of the liver.

The bile backs up and causes jaundice.

Johns Hopkins & You

What is pancreatic fluid? Instead of carrying bile, the pancreatic duct carries the fluid containing the digestive enzymes produced by the acinar cells exocrine cells of the pancreas. The main pancreatic duct is normally only one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter and it has many small side branches.

Just as was true for bile, the flow of pancreatic fluid is often blocked by tumors of the pancreas, and altered by pancreatic surgery.

The flow of pancreatic fluid is indicated by the dark yellow arrow. We subscribe to the HONcode principles.