Term papers writing service


Reliability and validity of the self efficacy

This study aimed at assessing psychometric properties of the Iranian version of child asthma self-efficacy scale. The present study was a descriptive-survey research. The community sample included healthy and asthmatic children and adolescents, aged 8 to 18 years old from the city of Ahvaz. The sample consisted of 261 children, 61 patients referred to clinics of asthma and allergies and 200 healthy children that were selected by the random cluster sampling method.

Child Asthma Self-Efficacy scale and child general self-efficacy questionnaire were used. Validity was demonstrated using correlation of total score and two subscales with child general self-efficacy and its academic and social subscale, indicating that all correlations were acceptable at 0. Two sample t test was used between patient sample and healthy sample that showed a significant difference between 2 subject groups.

As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, it seems that it is better to use total score of this questionnaire in the Iranian sample. The results demonstrated allowable reliability and validity of the child asthma self-efficacy scale.

The child asthma self-efficacy scale could be applicable in clinical trials, research, and clinical practice for more improvement and committed behavior regarding treatment regimes in children with asthma.

Testing the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise scale.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. Background The bio psychosocial BPS model is a iteration of general system theory that was named by Angel 1977in which physicians collect information at a biological level, psychological level, and social level to create a BPS description of each patient 1.

On the other hand, biological factors, psychological factors such as feedbacks, beliefs, and behaviorsand social factors cast, occupation, and ethnicity may effect the health of a person. Asthma is one of the diseases that can be considered in health psychology. Asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways. It is the most common chronic disease during childhood.

Asthma is a chronic, progressive disease of childhood and is a major cause of disability in this age group 2. The cause of asthma is not understood and there is no consensus about its etiology 4.

It's symptom include wheezing, chest tightness, shortness of breath and coughing, particularly at night and early morning 5. Asthma attacks can be triggered by different stimuli such as allergens, strong fragrances, perfumes, weather such as low temperature and high humiditysports, air quality, colds, infections, flu, and intense emotions 6.

Onset and frequency of asthma attacks due to a variety of drivers, is somewhat unpredictable. This can be particularly challenging and stressful for child patients 7. Psychological factors may in reliability and validity of the self efficacy respects effect symptoms, management, and treatment of asthma in children 9. Among factors, as indicated by Rhee et al. It could promote health by increasing barriers to mitigate the impact of the disease.

Asthmatic children and adolescents have limited regimens to follow. As a result of their disease, they experience social isolation 11.

Furthermore, despite the findings reliability and validity of the self efficacy non-coherence, some evidence, suggests that they have a low self-esteem, while they have to find compatibility with a variety of emotional responses 12.

According to the cognitive-social theory of Bandura, the variable self-efficacy or self-confidence influences feelings of adequacy. Competence and ability to cope with life 13 are affected by asthma in children and adolescents. This claim has been confirmed by studies, which shows that a high level of self-efficacy in children and adolescents are associated with greater use of asthma management strategies 14 and compliance of treatment 15. Self-efficacy can be an important objective for behavioral interventions.

The group with trouble controlling their asthma were compared to external controls, and poor adherence to treatment and higher rates of hospital admissions were found.

Indicators of self-control were associated with higher self-efficacy for managing asthma 17and higher level of self-efficacy perception in young people with asthma was associated with prevention, management of asthma, and treatment compliance 18. Due to its structural importance in enhancing and improving quality of life and compliance with treatment, and the need for management of this disease in children and adolescents, it is essential to design a measure with adequate reliability and validity, that could assess certain aspects of the management and prevention of diseases and related health-related self-efficacy allergens in children and adolescents with asthma.

This tool could be used by scholars and researchers in various fields of medicine and mental health to measure the efficacy and effectiveness of their interventions.

There are several self-efficacy scales for children with asthma. One of them is an efficacy scale for children with asthma 19including 37 items that only relies on three factors, namely medical treatment, environmental, problem solving aspects. The disadvantage of this scale is that self-management specific behaviors related to the prevention or control of symptoms e.

The self-efficacy asthma scale that was made by researchers 20 included 21 items and evaluated 5 dimensions, including acute attack management, asthma control, environment and emotions, communication with doctor, and regularity in use of medicine. This scale is long, specially items related to attack, and triggers of prevention are a few. Unfortunately, there was not any child asthma self-efficacy scale that has been translated and validated in Iran. Therefore, the aim of this study was validation of child asthma self-efficacy scale for 8- to 17-year-old children 21in a sample of Iranian children in Ahvaz city.

This scale has fewer questions, more direct items related to attack prevention, use of medicine, social behaviors related to disease, such as asking others for smoking, attack management, and symptoms control. The aim of this study was to determine whether the child asthma self-efficacy scale has favorable psychometric properties in Iranian children and adolescents. Methods The present study was a descriptive- survey research. The community sample included 8- to 18-year old healthy and asthmatic children and adolescents in the city of Ahwaz during year 2013.

The sample consisted of 261 children 61 patients with asthma symptoms and 200 healthy children and adolescences.

  • African American parents 'guardians' health literacy and self-efficacy and their child's level of asthma control;
  • Emergency department charges for asthma-related outpatient visits by insurance status.

Symptoms of asthma in the patient sample were confirmed by: Children with asthma were selected from Golestan hospital clinics for asthma and allergies, and a child allergic asthma specialist confirmed their symptoms.

Next, these children filled the ISAAC, child asthma self-efficacy scale and general self-efficacy questionnaire for children and adolescents. Number of healthy children was 200, which were selected by the multi stage random sampling method from four regions of the Ahwaz education districts, two regions were selected randomly.

Among elementary, middle, and high schools in each region, one girl's school and one boy school was selected randomly. From each school, students were randomly selected.

The sampling method was convenience. According to the book of research methods in psychology by Ali Delavar in correlation studies, the minimum number of subjects was 30.

Because in the current study, the correlation method was used for assessment validity, it seems that the number of subjects 260 children was adequate.

  • Furthermore, despite the findings of non-coherence, some evidence, suggests that they have a low self-esteem, while they have to find compatibility with a variety of emotional responses 12;
  • Entry criteria for healthy sample were lack of any other disorder and age range of 8 to 17 years old;
  • In the face of the results of the present study, it is worth stressing that the second hypothesis was also confirmed;
  • However, these factors were not in accordance with factors in original child asthma self-efficacy;
  • Two sample t test was used between patient sample and healthy sample that showed a significant difference between 2 subject groups.

Entry and Exit Criteria Entry criteria for the patient sample were asthma symptoms and age of 8 to 17 years old. Exit criterion for this sample was the lack of physician or psychiatry disorder.

  • Exploring factors influencing asthma control and asthma-specific health-related quality of life among children;
  • Topic and goals of study were explained for children and their parents or managers of schools;
  • Validity was demonstrated using correlation of total score and two subscales with child general self-efficacy and its academic and social subscale, indicating that all correlations were acceptable at 0;
  • The Questionnaire contains 23 items and 3 subscales social, academic, and emotional factors;
  • After translation of asthma self-efficacy scale to Persian and assessment with 10 pediatric children and adolescents to examine fluency and formal validity and use of their suggestions, the final version was completed by 61 children and adolescents with asthma.

Entry criteria for healthy sample were lack of any other disorder and age range of 8 to 17 years old. The current study was performed according to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 11, 17, and 20 ethical code and was approved in Khordad of 2013. Topic and goals of study were explained for children and their parents or managers of schools.

The first step of study was coordination and obtaining permission of educational organization, schools and health care systems in asthma and allergy clinics of Golestan hospital. The Child Asthma Self-Efficacy scale was designed by Bursch, Schwankovsky, Gilbert, and Zeiger 21 for children and adolescents aged 8 to 17 years old with asthma.

The scale had 14 items in a 5-scale Likert from 1 not at all sure to 5 completely sure. The scale had 2 subscales named attack prevention items1 to 8 and attack management items 9 to 12.

Correlation coefficient between Child Asthma Self-Efficacy scale and general self-efficacy questionnaire was 0. The correlation between attack prevention and attack management with health state scale was 0. Correlation of child asthma self-efficacy scales with asthma symptom was -0. The correlation between attack prevention and attack management with family effect questionnaire was -0.

This result showed that the scale had good validity. This study examined the psychometric properties of the child asthma self-efficacy scale. After translation of asthma self-efficacy scale to Persian and assessment with 10 pediatric children and adolescents to examine fluency and formal validity and use of their suggestions, the final version was completed by 61 children and adolescents with asthma. General self-Efficacy Questionnaire for Children and adolescents was designed and validated by Muris 22 to assess the self-efficacy of children and adolescents.

The Questionnaire contains 23 items and 3 subscales social, academic, and emotional factors. General self-efficacy score is the sum of 3 subscales social, reliability and validity of the self efficacy, and emotional items. Social self-efficacy includes the first 8 items and measures the ability to communicate with peers, assertiveness, and achievement of social norms.

Academic self- efficacy subscale includes 8 items and measures ability to manage learning behavior, dominance on academic topic, and attainment to academic expectations. Emotional self-efficacy subscale includes the last 7 items and measures child ability to cope with negative emotions. Items are arranged in a 5-point Likert scale from 1 not at all to 5 very well. Muris reported that the reliability for the total score is 0.

Jentashapir Journal of Health Research

The colorations of the Questionnaire with negative attribute and coping style questionnaire were 0. The validity of the questionnaire was calculated by correlation with children depression inventory that was -0.

Finally, it can be concluded that validity and reliability of the questionnaire was satisfactory 23. The researchers used this questionnaire, and its social and academic subscales to evaluate the validity of the child asthma self-efficacy scale. In this study, the subscale of asthma and allergy with 8 questions was used to measure asthma symptoms. This questionnaire was used to confirm symptoms of asthma in children. Results In the present study, 61 children and adolescents with pediatric asthma symptoms and 200 healthy children were selected for comparison.

The validity of this scale was assessed by calculating the correlation coefficient between a asthma self-efficacy and general self-efficacy questionnaire, b item-subscale correlations of the child asthma self-efficacy, and c comparison of asthmatic children and healthy children in general self-efficacy questionnaire.

Table 1 shows descriptive results of variables in healthy and patient groups. The measure of mean and standard deviation of general self-efficacy for total score and 2 subscales were 89.

Internal consistency of the subscales was also high, with coefficient alphas of 0. Pearson correlation coefficients between items and subscale scores are presented in Table 2.

There was a problem providing the content you requested

The result showed that items had moderate to strong correlations with their hypothesized subscales, which were higher than those with other subscales. Therefore, correlation coefficient for items 1 to 8 with attack prevention subscale was changeable between 0.

Table 3 indicates the correlation between subscales and total score of asthma self-efficacy with general self-efficacy score, social and educational subscale of general self-efficacy scale at 0. According to this table, the correlation between total score of general self-efficacy and total score of asthma self-efficacy was 0.

The correlation between social self-efficacy and total asthma self-efficacy, attack prevention and attack management was 0. As indicated, the correlation between gradual self-efficacy and total score of asthma self-efficacy, attack prevention, and attack management was 0.