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Laws were intended against which racial minorities

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Gray died from spinal injuries about a week after he was arrested and transported in a police van. This article originally appeared on the website of the Economic Policy Instituteunder the title, " From Ferguson to Baltimore: The Fruits of Government-Sponsored Segregation ". In Baltimore in 1910, a black graduate of Yale Law School purchased a home in a previously all-white neighborhood.

The Baltimore city government reacted by adopting a residential segregation ordinancerestricting African Americans to designated blocks. These are all good, necessary, and important things to do.

  • Both times, the parents appealed;
  • White mobs lynched veterans in uniform;
  • Colleges and universities reach out to groups that are underrepresented and urge students to apply;
  • The 1920s and 30s produced new Jim Crow laws;
  • Affirmative action is more of a process than just an admissions policy.

But such proposals ignore the obvious reality that the protests are not really or primarily about policing. White institutions created it, white institutions maintain it, and white society condones it. These constitutional violations have never been remedied, and we are paying the price in the violence we saw this week. Louis County that set the stage for police-community hostility there.

Virtually every one of the racially explicit federal, state, and local policies of segregation pursued in St.

A Brief History of Jim Crow

Louis has a parallel in policies pursued by government in Baltimore. In 1917, the U. The committee coordinated the efforts of the building and health departments with those of the real estate industry and white community organizations to apply pressure to any whites tempted to sell or rent to blacks.

Language attached to property deeds committing owners never to sell to an African American.

  • If blacks and whites had received equal treatment, would Jim Crow laws have been fair?
  • By 1944, a Swede visiting the South pronounced segregation so complete that whites did not see blacks except when being served by them;
  • Voting 6-2, however, the Court ruled that the voters of Michigan are free to decide whether or not to extend racial preferences in admissions;
  • Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education;
  • Further, there is concern that minority groups may be stigmatized and treated differently by peers and professors who may believe that the success of minority groups in higher education institutions is unearned.

Where neighbors jointly signed a covenant, any one of them could enforce it by asking a court to evict an African American family who purchased property in violation. Restrictive covenants were not merely private agreements between homeowners; they frequently had government sanction. In Baltimore, the city-sponsored Committee on Segregation organized neighborhood associations throughout the city that could circulate and enforce such covenants.

The FHA also barred African Americans themselves from obtaining bank mortgages for house purchases even in suburban subdivisions which were privately financed without federal construction loan guarantees.

Unable to get mortgages, and restricted to overcrowded neighborhoods where housing was in short supply, African Americans either rented apartments at rents considerably higher than those for similar dwellings in white neighborhoods, or bought homes on installment plans. These arrangements, known as contract sales, differed from mortgages because monthly payments were not amortized, so a single missed payment meant loss of a home, with no accumulated equity. Because black contract buyers knew how easily they could lose their homes, they struggled to make their inflated monthly payments.

Husbands and wives both worked double shifts. They neglected basic maintenance. They subdivided their apartments, crammed in extra tenants and, when possible, charged their tenants hefty rents. Children were deprived of a full day of schooling and left to fend for themselves in laws were intended against which racial minorities after-school hours. These conditions helped fuel the rise of gangs, which in turn terrorized shop owners and residents alike.

In the end, whites fled these neighborhoods, not only because of the influx of black families, but also because they were upset about overcrowding, decaying schools and crime.

  • Actually, the struggle had just begun;
  • Blacks voted, won elected office, and served on juries;
  • Oklahoma had black and white phone booths;
  • But Stewart noted many signs of change;
  • The cigarette holder and early 20th-century advertising cards depict common stereotypes of African Americans, Chinese Americans, Jews, and Irish Americans;
  • Both times, the parents appealed.

They also understood that the longer they stayed, the less their property would be worth. Whites could leave—blacks had to stay. The contract buying system was commonplace in Baltimore.

How Government Policies Cemented the Racism that Reigns in Baltimore

Nationwide, black family incomes are now about 60 percent of white family incomes, but black household wealth is only about 5 percent of white household wealth. In Baltimore and elsewhere, the distressed condition of African American working- and lower-middle-class families is almost entirely attributable to federal policy that prohibited black families from accumulating housing equity during the suburban boom that moved white families into single-family homes from the mid-1930s to the mid-1960s—and thus from bequeathing that wealth to their children and grandchildren, as white suburbanites laws were intended against which racial minorities done.

This was as true in northeastern cities like New York as it was in border cities like Baltimore and St. It was a very controversial move, but Romney got support from Vice President Spiro Agnew, who had been frustrated by unreasonable suburban resistance to integration and mixed income developments when he had been the Baltimore County Executive and governor of Maryland.

Ten years ago, during the subprime lending boom, banks and other financial institutions targeted African Americans for the marketing of subprime loans. The loans had exploding interest rates and prohibitive prepayment penalties, leading to a wave of foreclosures that forced black homeowners back into ghetto apartments and devastated the middle class neighborhoods to which these families had moved.

The bank had no similar practice of marketing such loans through white institutions. These policies were commonplace nationwide, but federal bank examiners responsible for supervising lending practices made no attempt to intervene. A legacy of these policies is the rioting we saw in Baltimore.

We never do so. Certainly, African American citizens of Baltimore were provoked by aggressive, hostile, even murderous policing, but Spiro Agnew had it right. Like Ferguson before it, Baltimore will not be the last such conflagration the nation needlessly experiences.