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Exploring the relation between the characters in animal farm and those of marxism

Of course Napoleon is also the major villain, however much more indirectly. Orwell says that at one time Jones was actually a decent master to his animals. At this time the farm was thriving. But in recent years the farm had fallen on harder times symbol of the world-wide Great Depression of the 30's and the opportunity was seen to revolt. The world-wide depression began in the United States when the stock market crashed in October of 1929. The depression spread throughout the world because American exports were so dependent on Europe.

  • But still he is taken for granted by the pigs, who send him away in a glue truck;
  • Moses, who was Mr;
  • Obviously a metaphor for Stalin, Comrade Napoleon represents the human frailties of any revolution;
  • But soon the cold war would begin between the United States and Russia;
  • Snowball represents Trotsky, the arch-rival of Stalin in Russia.

Germany along with the rest of Europe was especially hit hard. The parallels between crop failure of the farm and the depression in the 1930's are clear.

Only the leaders and the die-hard followers ate their fill during this time period.

  1. The pigs don't mind this time because the animals have already realized that the "equality" of the revolt is a farce.
  2. Both the horses and sheep represent in many ways the proletariat, or working class of unskilled laborers. Orwell narrates, "The pigs had an even harder struggle to counteract the lies put about by Moses, the tame raven.
  3. This is unbelievably also referred to in the book published in 1946 when Orwell writes, "An uproar of voices was coming from the farmhouse... One country would have a product or natural resource another country would not; therefore to survive, the country would trade.
  4. Both the horses and sheep represent in many ways the proletariat, or working class of unskilled laborers. The pigs, unlike other animals, live in luxury and enjoy the benefits of the society they help control.

Jones represents the old government, the last of the Czars. Old Major reveals his feelings about Jones and his administration when he says, "Man is the only creature that consumes without producing.

He does not give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the ploughhe cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that will prevent them from starving and the rest he keeps for himself. Little do they know, history will repeat itself with Napoleon and the pigs. This "purebred" of pigs is the kind, grand fatherly philosopher of change— an obvious metaphor for Karl Marx. Old Major proposes a solution to the animals' desperate plight under the Jones "administration" when he inspires a rebellion of sorts among the animals.

How does communism relate to Animal Farm by George Orwell?

Of course the actual time of the revolt is unsaid. It could be the next day or several generations down the road. But old Major's philosophy is only an ideal. After his death, three days after the barn-yard speech, the socialism he professes is drastically altered when Napoleon and the other pigs begin to dominate. It's interesting that Orwell does not mention Napoleon or Snowball anytime during the great speech of old Major.

This shows how distant and out-of-touch they really were; the ideals old Major proclaimed seemed to not even have been considered when they were establishing their new government after the successful revolt. It almost seemed as though the pigs fed off old Major's inspiration and then used it to benefit themselves a interesting twist of capitalism instead of following through on the old Major's honest proposal.

This could be Orwell's attempt to dig Stalin, who many consider to be someone who totally ignored Marx's political and social theory.

Expert Answers

Using old Major's seeming naivety, Orwell concludes that no society is perfect, no pure socialist civilization can exist, and there is no way to escape the evil grasp of capitalism. More on this in the Napoleon section. Unfortunately when Napoleon and Squealer take over, old Major becomes more and more a distant fragment of the past in the minds of the farm animals.

Moses Moses is perhaps Orwell's most intriguing character in Animal Farm. This raven, first described as the "especial pet" of Mr. Jones, is the only animal who doesn't work. He's also the only character who doesn't listen to Old Major's speech of rebellion. Orwell narrates, "The pigs had an even harder struggle to counteract the lies put about by Moses, the tame raven.

Moses, who was Mr. Jones's especial pet, was a spy and a tale-bearer, but he was also a clever talker. He claimed to know of the existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which al animals went when they died. It was situated somewhere up in the sky, a little distance beyond the clouds, Moses said. In Sugarcandy Mountain it was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges.

How does Animalism represent Communism in the novel Animal Farm by George Orwell?

The animals hated Moses because he told tales and did no work but some of them believed in Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade them that there was no such place. To Orwell, the Church is just used as a tool by dictatorships to keep the working class of people hopeful and productive. Orwell uses Moses to criticize Marx's belief that the Church will just go away after the rebellion. Jones first used Moses to keep the animals working, and he was successful in many ways before the rebellion.

The pigs had a real hard time getting rid of Moses, since the lies about Heaven they thought would only lead the animals away from the equality of socialism. But as the pigs led by Napoleon become more and more like Mr. Jones, Moses finds his place again. After being away for several years, he suddenly returns and picks up right where he left off.

The pigs don't mind this time because the animals have already realized that the "equality" of the revolt is a farce. So Napoleon feeds Moses with beer, and the full-circle is complete. Orwell seems to offer a very cynical and harsh view of the Church. This proves that Animal Farm is not simply an anti-communist work meant to lead people into capitalism and Christianity. Really Orwell found loop-holes and much hypocrisy in both systems.

It's interesting that recently in Russia the government has begun to allow religion again.

Animal Farm: Character Profiles

It almost seems that like the pigs, the Kremlin officials of today are trying to keep their people motivated, not in the ideology of communism, but in the "old-fashioned" hope of an after-life. Snowball Orwell describes Snowball as a pig very similar to Napoleon— at least in the early stages. Both pigs wanted a leadership position in the "new" economic and political system which is actually contradictory to the whole supposed system of equality.

But as time goes on, both eventually realize that one of them will have to step down. Orwell says that the two were always arguing. But it was noticed that these two were never in agreement: It might seem that this was a spontaneous reaction, but a careful look tells otherwise.

Napoleon was setting the stage for his own domination long before he really began "dishing it out" to Snowball. For example, he took the puppies away from their mothers in efforts to establish a private police force. These dogs would later be used to eliminate Snowball, his arch-rival. Snowball represents Trotsky, the arch-rival of Stalin in Russia.

The parallels between Trotsky and Snowball are uncanny. Trotsky too, was exiled, not from the farm, but to Mexico, where he spoke out against Stalin. Stalin was very weary of Trotsky, and feared that Trotsky supporters might try to assassinate him. The dictator of Russia tried hard to kill Trotsky, for the fear of losing leadership was very great in the crazy man's mind. Trotsky also believed in Communism, but he thought he could run Russia better than Stalin.

Trotsky was found with a pick axe in his head at his villa in Mexico. Napoleon Napoleon is Orwell's chief villain in Animal Farm.

  1. Benjamin seems to be finally confronting Napoleon and revealing his knowledge of the pigs' hypocrisy, although before he had been completely independent. Orwell uses Mollie to characterize the people after any rebellion who aren't too receptive to new leaders and new economics.
  2. The pigs don't mind this time because the animals have already realized that the "equality" of the revolt is a farce. There are always those resistant to change.
  3. The inequality and true hypocrisy of communism is expressed here by Orwell, who criticized Marx's oversimplified view of a socialist, "utopian" society. Benjamin Old Benjamin, an elderly donkey, is one of Orwell's most elusive and intriguing characters on Animal Farm.

The name Napoleon is very coincidental since Napoleon, the dictator of France, was thought by many to be the Anti-Christ.

Napoleon, the pig, is really the central character on the farm. Obviously a metaphor for Stalin, Comrade Napoleon represents the human frailties of any revolution. Orwell believed that although socialism is good as an ideal, it can never be successfully adopted due to uncontrollable sins of human nature.

For example, although Napoleon seems as first to be a good leader, he is eventually overcome by greed and soon becomes power-hungry. Of course Stalin did too in Russia, leaving the original equality of socialism behind, giving himself all the power and living in luxury while the common peasant suffered. Thus, while his national and international status blossomed, the welfare of Russia remained unchanged. Orwell explains, "Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the animals themselves any richer--except, of course for the pigs and the dogs.

He even hires a pig to sample his food for him to make certain that no one is trying to poison him. Stalin, too, was a cruel dictator in Russia. After suspecting many people in his empire to be supporters of Trotsky Orwell's SnowballStalin systematically murders many. By the end of the book, Napoleon doesn't even pretend to lead a socialist state.

After renaming it a Republic and instituting his own version of the commandments and the Beasts of England, Comrade Napoleon, he quickly becomes more or less a dictator who of course has never even been elected by the animals. It was this rebellion which signaled the beginning of communism in red China.

This communism, much like the distorted Stalin view of socialism, is still present today in the oppressive social government in China. Boxer and Clover are used by Orwell to represent the proletariat, or unskilled labor class in Russian society. This lower class is naturally drawn to Stalin Napoleon because it seems as though they will benefit most from his new system. Since Boxer and the other low animals are not accustomed to the "good life," they can't really compare Napoleon's government to the life they had before under the czars Jones.

Also, since usually the lowest class has the lowest intelligence, it is not difficult to persuade them into thinking they are getting a good deal. The proletariat exploring the relation between the characters in animal farm and those of marxism also quite good at convincing each other that communism is a good idea.

Orwell supports this contention when he narrates, "Their most faithful disciples were the two carthorses, Boxer and Clover. Those two had great difficulty in thinking anything out for themselves, but having once accepted the pigs as their teachers, they absorbed everything that they were told, and passed it on to the other animals by simple arguments.

But still he is taken for granted by the pigs, who send him away in a glue truck. Truly Boxer is the biggest poster-child for gullibility. Squealer Squealer is an intriguing character in Orwell's Animal Farm. He's first described as a manipulator and persuader. Orwell narrates, "He could turn black into white. Propaganda was a key to many publications, and since their was no television or radio, the newspaper was the primary source of media information.

So the monopoly of the Pravda was seized by Stalin and his new Bolshevik regime.