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Electricity comes to cocoa bottom marcia douglas

Alvi uses her experience to tell us something more significant. Where Alvi is extremely disappointed with the India she sees due to the western influences. Similar to biblical stories, this poem has a meaning and a moral.

Electricity Comes to Cocoa Bottom

Unknown Girl is one stanza long, with small and short line lengths. Alvi may have done this to make the poem look like one long line of henna but on a deeper level it relates to the purpose.

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Alvi shows through the way the poem looks, that progress is a continuous force that has no breaks, linking the simile on lines 32-35 about people clinging to the side of a train. Alvi shows progress, through form, as a destructible force which is unstoppable and inevitable. When she describes something what she or the reader expects to see, the rhythm is controlled and regular. Alvi uses the technique of repetition to create a conscious pattern in the lines 1-4, 10-14 and 28-31.

Is western influence devaluing real artistry with its mass produced objects? Unlike Alvi, who uses repetition as an organisational device, Douglas uses it for a different effect.

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The first section gives us context to juxtapose the old and new India; it is an introduction to key themes and ideas, to what is happening and who is involved. The second section is entirely focussed on the girl and the henna tattoo. She uses one dominant event, an aspect of India culture, to symbolise the broader changes happening in India and how the traditional culture is being lost.

But as the poem develops her understanding of the importance of this henna grows alongside it. The closer she looks at the tattoo the more she appreciates the artistry and what it symbolises.

The West has surged into her country like a train, destroying all that is personal and traditional. Stanza one is the longest paragraph, building tension and anticipation through the children, animals and nature. Personifying the evening makes the event feel even more remarkable and memorable. The event unlike the anticipation is momentary.

Stanza two is when the actual event itself happens, there is a whole stanza dedicated to the big build up for only electricity comes to cocoa bottom marcia douglas lines lines 18 and 25. By this point the whole world has stopped to bear witness to what ends to be a disappointing occasion, the time they have invested was wasted. A literacy device used dominantly by both poets is symbolism.

The symbol linking the two is light. Does Alvi want us to see that India is becoming fake and decorative country, rather than well-functioning? The light is blinding us from seeing the real India.

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  • Everything is frequency; frequency is in us and surrounds us.

It provides no benefit, just like progress has on the areas it impacts. The slow process of making amber is the antithesis of what Alvi shows progress to be.

Marcia Douglas

The unknown girl herself is symbol which Moniza uses as a vehicle to move the poem along; she is used by the poet to provide a bridge between her ancestry and present day life, the Unknown girl becomes a symbol of hope, a fleeting connection with herself and the India she expected to find.

Almost as important as the unknown girl is the henna. The tattoo of henna symbolises the connection, it is artistically decorative and fits in with the poems sematic field. Does she fear of what is to come of this event? By the end of the second stanza, the reader can tell the poet is critical of this worship of man-made phenomena. The implicit criticism is clear when Douglas uses a religious hyperbole in the second stanza and the dramatic build-up to a tiny event is given in the first stanza.

However it is most clear with her use of bathos in the third and final stanza, achieved through the use of a comparatively brief stanza 6 lines and the lack if lasting impact. They had wasted their time in something that was a disappointment. They gave an unthinkable amount of time waiting for this event and were inevitably disappointed.

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She personifies the streets, and by doing this she transfers the feeling of the people onto their city to show how progress is affecting everyone. Unknown Girl is a standard example of a culture lost striving for progress. How to cite this page Choose cite format: