Term papers writing service

Detailing three of the common characteristics of poor decision making

One way that a manager can help determine the true problem in a situation is by identifying the problem separately from its symptoms. The most obviously troubling situations found in an organization can usually be identified as symptoms of underlying problems.

See Table for some examples of symptoms. These symptoms all indicate that something is wrong with an organization, but they don't identify root causes. A successful manager doesn't just attack symptoms; he works to uncover the factors that cause these symptoms. All managers want to make the best decisions. To do so, managers need to have the ideal resources — information, time, personnel, equipment, and supplies — and identify any limiting factors.

Realistically, managers operate in an environment that normally doesn't provide ideal resources. For example, they may lack the proper budget or may not have the most accurate information or any extra time. So, they must choose to satisfice — to make the best decision possible with the information, resources, and time available.

Time pressures frequently cause a manager to move forward after considering only the first or most obvious answers. However, successful problem solving requires thorough examination of the challenge, and a quick answer may not result in a permanent solution. Thus, a manager should think through and investigate several alternative solutions to a single problem before making a quick decision.

One of the best known methods for developing alternatives is through brainstorming, where a group works together to generate ideas and alternative solutions.

The assumption behind brainstorming detailing three of the common characteristics of poor decision making that the group dynamic stimulates thinking — one person's ideas, no matter how outrageous, can generate ideas from the others in the group.

Ideally, this spawning of ideas is contagious, and before long, lots of suggestions and ideas flow. Brainstorming usually requires 30 minutes to an hour.

  1. There are different types of decisions, ranging from automatic, programmed decisions to more intensive nonprogrammed decisions. A model of creativity and innovation in organizations.
  2. With each dispute the village has found it more difficult to come to agreement on issues that cross neighbourhood boundaries, and over time the neighbourhood leadership has become increasingly strong in relation to the village leaders.
  3. What motivations do they have to change or not to change the way they do things?
  4. As you can see, his ideas are high in originality and flexibility Conlin, 2007.

The following specific rules should be followed during brainstorming sessions: Concentrate on the problem at hand. This rule keeps the discussion very specific and avoids the group's tendency to address the events leading up to the current problem.

In fact, the more ideas that come up, the better. In other words, there are no bad ideas. Encouragement of the group to freely offer all thoughts on the subject is important.

Participants should be encouraged to present ideas no matter how ridiculous they seem, because such ideas may spark a creative thought on the part of someone else.

The Decision‐Making Process

Refrain from allowing members to evaluate others' ideas on the spot. All judgments should be deferred until all thoughts are presented, and the group concurs on the best ideas. Although brainstorming is the most common technique to develop alternative solutions, managers can use several other ways to help develop solutions.

Here are some examples: It also avoids some of the pitfalls, such as pressure to conform, group dominance, hostility, and conflict, that can plague a more interactive, spontaneous, unstructured forum such as brainstorming. With this technique, participants never meet, but a group leader uses written questionnaires to conduct the decision making.

No matter what technique is used, group decision making has clear advantages and disadvantages when compared with individual decision making. The following are among the advantages: Groups provide a broader perspective. Employees are more likely to be satisfied and to support the final decision. Opportunities for discussion help to answer questions and reduce uncertainties for the decision makers.

These points are among the disadvantages: The decision reached could be a compromise rather than the optimal solution. Individuals become guilty of groupthink — the tendency of members of a group to conform to the prevailing opinions of the group.

Groups may have difficulty performing tasks because the group, rather than a single individual, makes the decision, resulting in confusion when it comes time to implement and evaluate the decision. So, are two or more heads better than one? The answer depends on several factors, such as the nature of the task, the abilities of the group members, and the form of interaction. Because a manager often has a choice between making a decision independently or including others in the decision making, she needs to understand the advantages and disadvantages of group decision making.

The detailing three of the common characteristics of poor decision making of this step is to decide the relative merits of each idea. Managers must identify the advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution before making a final decision. Evaluating the alternatives can be done in numerous ways. Here are a few possibilities: Determine the pros and cons of each alternative. Weight each factor important in the decision, ranking each alternative relative to its ability to meet each factor, and then multiply by a probability factor to provide a final value for each alternative.

Regardless of the method used, a manager needs to evaluate each alternative in terms of its Feasibility — Can it be done? Effectiveness — How well does it resolve the problem situation? Consequences — What will be its costs financial and nonfinancial to the organization? After a manager has analyzed all the alternatives, she must decide on the best one.

The best alternative is the one that produces the most advantages and the fewest serious disadvantages. Sometimes, the selection process can be fairly straightforward, such as the alternative with the most pros and fewest cons.

  1. Conversely, successful managers are clear about what they want at the outset of the decision-making process, set objectives for others to respond to, carry out an unrestricted search for solutions, get key people to participate, and avoid using their power to push their perspective Nutt, 1998. The four different decision-making models—rational, bounded rationality, intuitive, and creative—vary in terms of how experienced or motivated a decision maker is to make a choice.
  2. Academy of Management Executive, 18, 8—12.
  3. The chief of the village is the oldest male in the village.
  4. If they run through the mental model and find that the solution will not work, they alter the solution and retest it before setting it into action.

Other times, the optimal solution is a combination of several alternatives. Sometimes, though, the best alternative may not be obvious. That's when a manager must decide which alternative is the most feasible and effective, coupled with which carries the lowest costs to the organization.

See the preceding section. In those cases, a manager simply selects the alternative with the highest probability of success. Managers are paid to make decisions, but they are also paid to get results from these decisions. Positive results must follow decisions.

Everyone involved with the decision must know his or her role in ensuring a successful outcome. Ongoing actions need to be monitored.

What Is Decision Making?

An evaluation system should provide feedback on how well the decision is being implemented, what the results are, and what adjustments are necessary to get the results that were intended when the solution was chosen. In order for a manager to evaluate his decision, he needs to gather information to determine its effectiveness. Was the original problem resolved?

If a manager's plan hasn't resolved the problem, he needs to figure out what went wrong. A manager may accomplish this by asking the following questions: Was the wrong alternative selected? Was the correct alternative selected, but implemented improperly? If so, a manager should focus attention solely on the implementation step to ensure that the chosen alternative is implemented successfully.

Was the original problem identified incorrectly?

  • The rational decision-making model has important lessons for decision makers;
  • They do not herd their own cattle, however, but turn them over to specialist herders who live outside the village and practice a semi-nomadic lifestyle in the region;
  • Is this decision fair?
  • Similarly, the decisions made by firms to trade in mortgage-backed securities is having negative consequences for the entire U.

Has the implemented alternative been given enough time to be successful?