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Definition nature types diagnosis and treatment of scoliosis

Scoliosis What is Scoliosis? Everyone's spine has subtle natural curves. But some people have different curves, side-to-side spinal curves that also twist the spine.

  • Adam's forward bend test;
  • To figure out the skeletal age, your doctor may order a wrist x-ray and compare that to a national standard;
  • Low back pain and stiffness are the 2 most common symptoms Numbness, cramping, and shooting pain in the legs due to pinched nerves Fatigue results from strain on the muscles of the lower back and legs Imaging Evaluation Scoliosis defined with radiographs that can include the following;
  • Everyone's spine has subtle natural curves.

This condition is called "scoliosis". On an x-ray with a front or rear view of the body, the spine of a person with scoliosis looks more like an "S" or a "C" than a straight line. These curves can make a person's shoulders or waist appear uneven.

  • They stabilize the spine and allow the spine to fuse in the corrected position, and is always performed with the addition of a fusion;
  • These curves can't be corrected simply by learning to stand up straight;
  • To figure out the skeletal age, your doctor may order a wrist x-ray and compare that to a national standard.

These curves can't be corrected simply by learning to stand up straight. You can't cause scoliosis; it does not come from carrying heavy backpacks, participating vigorously in sports, or poor posture. Types of Adult Scoliosis In addition to the two types of adult scoliosis discussed in this section—Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis and Adult Degenerative Scoliosis—types of scoliosis that develops early in life or that results from a separate syndrome also effect adults.

Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Adult idiopathic scoliosis is, in essence, a continuation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Sometimes a spine curvature of an idiopathic cause not known nature that began during teenage years may progress during adult life.

Curves may increase in size 0.

Locations Occurs in the thoracic upper and lumbar lower spine, with the same basic appearance as that in teenagers, such as shoulder asymmetry, a rib hump, or a prominence of the lower back on the side of the curvature. Additionally, arthritis commonly affects joints of the spine and leads to the formation of bone spurs. Symptoms Adults with idiopathic scoliosis have more symptoms than teens because of degeneration in discs and joints leading to narrowing of the openings for the spinal sac and nerves spinal stenosis.

Some patients may lean forward to try and open up space for their nerves.

  1. Focused x-rays of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine may also be necessary.
  2. Adult Idiopathic Scoliosis Adult idiopathic scoliosis is, in essence, a continuation of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. This will project how much growth is left and if the scoliosis is likely to progress.
  3. An MRI is usually ordered if you have leg pain, your physician finds some subtle neurologic abnormalities on physical examination, or if you have significant pain or an "atypical" curve pattern.
  4. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI or computerized tomography CT , advanced imaging techniques to assess patients with lower extremity symptoms or other neurologic signs or symptoms.
  5. To figure out the skeletal age, your doctor may order a wrist x-ray and compare that to a national standard. Periodic observation Over-the-counter pain relievers Exercises aimed at strengthening the core muscles of the abdomen and back and improving flexibility Braces with short-term use of for pain relief long-term use in adolescents is discouraged because braces can weaken the core muscles Epidurals or nerve block injections for temporary relief of leg pain and other symptoms Stronger pain medications can also be habit-forming and must be used with caution.

Others may lean forward because of loss of their natural curve lordosis, sway back in their lumbar spine low back. The imbalance causes the patients to compensate by bending their hips and knees to try and maintain an upright posture.

Adult patients may have a variety of symptoms, which can lead to gradual loss of function: Low back pain and stiffness are the 2 most common symptoms Numbness, cramping, and shooting pain in the legs due to pinched nerves Fatigue results from strain on the muscles of the lower back and legs Imaging Evaluation Scoliosis defined with radiographs that can include the following: Standing x-ray of the entire spine looking both from the back as well as from the side so your physician can measure the radiographs to determine curve magnitude, measured in degrees using the Cobb method.

Magnetic resonance imaging MRI study of the spine is rarely used for patients experiencing minimal symptoms with adult idiopathic scoliosis. An MRI is usually ordered if you have leg pain, your physician finds some subtle neurologic abnormalities on physical examination, or if you have significant pain or an "atypical" curve pattern.

Treatment Options Nonoperative treatment The majority of adults with idiopathic scoliosis do not have disabling symptoms and can be managed with simple measures including the following: Periodic observation Over-the-counter pain relievers Exercises aimed at strengthening the core muscles of the abdomen and back and improving flexibility Braces, in short-term use for pain relief long-term use in adults is discouraged because braces can weaken the core muscles Epidurals or nerve block injections for temporary relief if the patient has persistent leg pain and other symptoms due to arthritis and pinched nerves.

Patients should track their response to the various injections to help define their pain generators. Stronger pain medications can also be habit-forming and must be used with caution.

If narcotics are needed to control the pain, see a scoliosis surgeon to learn more about the possible causes of pain. Operative treatment Surgical treatment is reserved for patients who have: Failed all reasonable conservative non-operative measures. Severely restricted functional activities and substantially reduced overall quality of life. The goals of surgery are to restore spinal balance and reduce pain and discomfort by relieving nerve pressure decompression and maintaining corrected alignment by fusing and stabilizing the spinal segments.

When patients are carefully chosen and mentally well-prepared for surgery, excellent functional outcomes can be achieved which can provide positive life-changing experience for a given individual patient.

Scoliosis in Children

When larger surgeries—those greater than 8 hours—are necessary, surgery may be divided into 2 surgeries 5 to 7 days apart. Microdecompression relieves pressure on the nerves; A small incision is made and magnification loupes or a microscopic assists the surgeon in guiding tools to the operation site.

Surgical stabilization involves anchoring hooks, wires or screws to the spinal segments and using metal rods to link the anchors together. They stabilize the spine and allow the spine to fuse in the corrected position. Fusion uses the patient's own bone or using cadaver or synthetic bone substitutes to "fix" the spine into a straighter position Osteotomy is a procedure in which spinal segments are cut and realigned Vertebral column resection removes entire vertebral sections prior to realigning the spine and is used when an osteotomy and other operative measures cannot correct the scoliosis.

Adult Degenerative Scoliosis Also known as de novo new scoliosis. This type of scoliosis begins in the adult patient due to degeneration of the discs, arthritis of the facet joints and collapse and wedging of the disc spaces.

Locations It is typically seen in the lumbar spine lower backand usually accompanied by straightening of the spine from the side view loss of lumbar lordosis. Symptoms Disc degeneration and spinal stenosis associated with adult degenerative scoliosis can cause the following symptoms: Back pain Shooting pain down the legs Imaging Evaluation X-rays, front and standing, must include all segments of the spine as well as the pelvis and hips to measure alignment, curvatures, and balance.

For the side x-rays, hips and knees must be straight.

Focused x-rays of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine may also be necessary. Magnetic resonance imaging MRI or computerized tomography CTadvanced imaging techniques to assess patients with lower extremity symptoms or other neurologic signs or symptoms. Treatment Options Nonoperative treatment is appropriate for the majority of adults with degenerative scoliosis who don't have disabling symptoms. Periodic observation Over-the-counter pain relievers Exercises aimed at strengthening the core muscles of the abdomen and back and improving flexibility Braces with short-term use of for pain relief long-term use in adolescents is discouraged because braces can weaken the core muscles Epidurals or nerve block injections for temporary relief of leg pain and other symptoms Stronger pain medications can also be habit-forming and must be used with caution.

  1. Treatment Options Nonoperative treatment is appropriate for the majority of adults with degenerative scoliosis who don't have disabling symptoms. This usually reveals abnormalities, such as a rib hump or an incorrect shape of the back.
  2. Radiation Exposure in Scoliosis. The nurse generally uses the Adam's forward bend test, which is the most common physical screening test for scoliosis.
  3. To figure out the skeletal age, your doctor may order a wrist x-ray and compare that to a national standard. The Adam's forward bend test helps identify an unusual curve, but it can't tell you how severe the curve is.

If narcotics are needed to control the pain, see a scoliosis surgeon to learn more about the pain generators. Decompression surgery removes the roof of the spinal canal laminectomy and enlarging the spaces where the nerve roots exit the canal foraminotomyresulting in decompressed nerve roots and pain relief.

They stabilize the spine and allow the spine to fuse in the corrected position, and is always performed with the addition of a fusion.