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Compare the theories of lenski marx weber and durkheim

Compare the theories of lenski marx weber and durkheim

Marx, Durkheim, and Weber: Each of them has their own conception of what sociology is, and what it should ultimately do and achieve. For Durkheim, sociology is a distinct and separate discipline from philosophy and psychology, for it is the study of social facts, its central principle is to seek social causality, and its ultimate goal is to maintain social order Ritzer, 2011.

But what made Durkheim, Weber, and Marx similar with one another was their deep preoccupation in understanding the newly emerging modern industrial society. Given their different, but sometimes overlapping, appreciation of the orientation and task of sociology, it is understandable that they presented contrasting views of the nature of modern industrial societies.

Further, as social scientists, they tried to identify the various problems confronted by modern societies and at the same time proposed solutions to these social problems. Having been born during the period wherein immense industrialization characterized the different parts of Europe, Karl Marx 1818-1883 was particularly attuned of the changes in social, political, and economic systems taking place in the region.

By examining the effects of industrialization as well as drawing from the ideas of German theorists Hegel and Feuerbach, Marx developed his concept of dialectical historical materialism which a way of illustrating the change from one society to another Cuzzort and King, 1980.

For Marx, society exists primarily to fulfill the needs of the people, noting that the process of material production is the base of all human societies.

The process of material production, according to Marx, entails two important components: This opposition is generally driven by the changes in the forces of production technological advancementthus, prompting also the change in social relations.

Social change, however, is not generally smooth and easy, for it always entail disruptive revolutions. Capitalism, according to Ritzer 2011, p. Capitalist societies are composed of the bourgeoisie, those who own the means of production, and the working class which Marx termed as the proletariat Schaefer, 2005. He called this process of estrangement of the individual from other people, his work, and the society as alienation. In capitalist societies, the proletariats were alienated from their own labor since their work was appropriated by the bourgeoisie and the work itself was obligatory.

Another problem that lies in capitalist societies, according to Marx, is the exploitation of the workers. In the words of Ritzer 2011, p. Exploitation generally occurs through the extraction of the capitalists of the profits produced from the labor of the workers for further accumulation of capital.

These conditions under capitalism, as Marx pointed out, ultimately leads to class conflict between the capitalists bourgeoisie and the proletariats Ritzer, 2011. Marx claimed that the only way to put an end to the problems of modern industrial society — alienation, exploitation, and class conflict, is to overthrow the capitalist system, progressed to socialism, and to establish a communist type of society Carter, 2007.

In compare the theories of lenski marx weber and durkheim with the assumption of Marx that conflict and domination characterize societies, Emile Durkheim 1858-1917 believed that cohesion and harmony define societies Carter, 2007. Throughout his career, Durkheim was particularly concerned in the explaining social order and understanding social integration Ritzer and Goodman, 2004. According to Durkheim, there are two types of societies — the primitive and the modern society, both having their roots in the division of labor.

Division of labor, according to Matthewman, West-Newman and Curtis 2007, p. Durkheim argued that in primitive societies, there is too little division of labor, meaning there is scarcely any differentiation in the kinds of labor that people engage in.

Conversely, people in these societies are profoundly integrated based on the beliefs, sentiments and experiences they shared with one another, which Durkheim denoted as collective conscience.

Which social theories do you agree with lenski marx weber or durkheim

For Durkheim, the primitive society is characterized by mechanical solidarity, that is, it is held together by the likeness among people Ritzer, 2011. In modern societies, on the other hand, the division of labor is so distinct and so specialized that the ties among people are now based on the functions they perform for each other.

In his view, the modern society is held together by mutual dependence among people, which compare the theories of lenski marx weber and durkheim called as organic solidarity. He likewise pointed out that the intricate and highly-specialized nature of modern industrial societies does not lead to disintegration, but instead, to a new form of solidarity grounded on interdependence Ritzer, 2011.

According to Ritzer and Goodman 2004, p. Durkheim opined that in anomic division of labor, people experience estrangement from the group norms and values that normally regulate and constraint their behaviors.

The forced division of labor, on the other hand, refers to the condition wherein incapable or inappropriate individuals, groups, and classes are allowed to handle positions in the society, merely on the basis of traditions, economic influence or by their social statuses. Durkheim was convinced, however, that these problems were not inherent in the modern industrial society, and therefore, can be resolved and eliminated.

In order to revive the disintegrating common morality, Durkheim offered two reforms in society: Max Weber 1864-1920 sees the nature of modern society in another perspective. He described modern industrial society as a rational and highly bureaucratized society Cuzzort and King, 1980.

Notebook of a Socio Explorer

Firstly, Weber pointed out that there are two types of societies: Thus, individuals in the modern society are driven by rational calculation and place much importance to efficiency. Ultimately, according to Weber, the rationalization of thought would trigger the weakening of traditional authority, while at the same compare the theories of lenski marx weber and durkheim, would lead to the emergence of legal-rational authority accompanied by a bureaucratic administration Carter, 2007.

Furthermore, he noted that bureaucratization of the society is inevitable, for the reason that the needs of the present society to be systematically organized are steadily increasing. Like Marx and Durkheim, Weber was concerned with the problems which pervade the modern societies, and was even described by Carter 2007, p.

On a more positive note, however, he also considers the possibility though minimal of a new breed of intellectuals, scientists, politicians, including bureaucrats and capitalists, which would seek and develop effective solutions to the problems brought by bureaucratic oppression Ritzer, 2011.

As mentioned earlier, Karl Marx, Emile Durkheim, and Max Weber have varying judgments regarding the nature of the modern society. For Marx, the main theme that defines these societies is the mode of production, for Durkheim it is the increasing division of labor, while Weber considers the dominance of rationality. The three also differ in describing the present maladies confronting the modern society.

At one glance, the assumptions made by the three classical thinkers appear to be vastly different from one another. However, if one would look more closely, their assumptions are not overly mutually exclusive. There is, at least, a certain degree of similarity among some of their ideas.

For instance, although Marx, Durkheim, and Weber have varying explanations about the nature of the society, according to Carter 2007their views are all based on economic conditions.

Furthermore, Marx and Weber believed that modernity was essentially brought by power Carter, 2007and Durkheim and Marx seemed to be both optimistic about the future of the modern societies Ritzer, 2011. Certainly, all around the world, modern societies are defined by the increasing specialization of labor. Durkheim was also right in claiming that the increasing division of labor breeds profound individuality.

He recognized that conflicts do exist, generally brought by the division of labor, but he argued that it is not intrinsic and normal in the society, and therefore it should be eradicated.

Compare the theories of Lenski, Marx, Weber and Durkheim.?

Also, Durkheim was fairly hopeful that these problems could be solve through the strengthening of new the collective morality that would arise in the modern society. With this, unlike Marx who believes that conflict is inherent and perpetual to society, and Weber who perceives the future of modern societies as bleak and uncertain, Durkheim provided a more realistic and optimistic view regarding the present and future condition of the modern society. Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.

Sociology and the basics. Pearson Education Canada Matthewman, S.