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Closing of the frontierand the turner thesis

They left the southern states following the "Reconstruction" of the states after the Civil War. Reconstruction put the blacks under racial violence, oppression, and discrimination, due to the Klan, Black Codes, and sharecropping. In 1877, after the Federal soldiers left the south, Andrew Johnson's plan of "Reconstruction" started taking shape.

The underlying explanation for most of the changes brought up from Reconstruction was racism.

From the changing of ownership of land to discriminatory laws, the blacks had a hard time surviving in the south. After the Civil War, Andrew Johnson ordered that all land was to be returned to their previous owners, resulting in a largely agricultural land owned by a small percentage of people. This led to something called sharecropping.

  1. Heritage House The growth of California was so rapid that it, in 1850, became a state merely two years after becoming American territory.
  2. Landowners would provide workers with minimal housing as well as seed and tools, and they would, as pay, get a share of the crop. There were many taxes and regulations that applied only to the Chinese, designed to limit them.
  3. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, 1848, gold was recovered on the ground, and later gold was found in streams and rivers. Landowners would provide workers with minimal housing as well as seed and tools, and they would, as pay, get a share of the crop.
  4. This 1882 law prevented further Chinese immigration into the US.

Sharecropping was basically slavery without the name. Landowners would provide workers with minimal housing as well as seed and tools, and they would, as pay, get a share of the crop. In return, the landowners got a steady workforce that could not leave or sustain themselves off the meager pay they received. The want for a better economic opportunity led some of these Exodusters to seek refuge in the West. These state laws were basically old slave codes rewritten to regulate black labor.

They represented the white man's unwillingness to accept blacks as equals, and brought along with it social discrimination.

It seemed that the oppression didn't just exist among the white extremists like the KKK, but in all aspects of white society. The Exodusters left the south in hopes of finding a truly "free" land. In the spring of 1879, there was a rumor, which turned out to be false, that the government set aside Kansas for former slaves, and it brought 15,000 new blacks over the following year.

A former slave named Benjamin "Pap" Singleton led a majority of the Exodusters. Politically, Kansas didn't encourage immigrants, but it was more welcoming than the rest of the country.

This is known as the Exodus of 1879. The Exodusters found Kansas to be satisfactory. Most found work as domestic or trade workers. Some became farmers in upstate Kansas, but could only purchase poor land as the ideal areas had already been purchased. The black population closing of the frontierand the turner thesis by about 26,000 in the 1870s. Explanation of Exoduster in story form.

They were named based on the dark color of their skin and curly hair, and denoted the respect Natives had for them. Many of these soldiers were veterans of the American Civil War, and because of that, had been highly sought after due to their military experience. Also in the Army were ex-slaves and free men, artisans and laborers, and farmers and city men. There was a myth about the equipment issued to the black soldiers, saying that what they received was lower in quality than what the white soldiers received.

This was not true, however, since Congress chose not to replenish military stores until all the old stock was used up, there being many uniforms in storage.

Everyone got an equally poor, ill-fitting uniform. If anything, blacks and whites worked together well. But there was indeed some discrimination against the Buffalo Soldiers. While there was praise there was also prejudice, from white soldiers, superiors, and civilians. There are accounts of black soldiers being treated unfairly and some highly respected. The Soldiers were stationed on the southern plains and Southwest, and held many roles. They patrolled and explored the territory, built roads, forts, and telegraph lines, guarded major transportation routes and railroad construction crews, provided escorts for cattle drives and mail coaches, and were the police force.

Throughout its active time, the Buffalo Soldiers were very successful and left a proud legacy. Their reenlistment rates were the highest, and their desertions were the lowest. Turner's Thesis states that the West birthed the American identity with its rugged, indiscriminating landscape and a unique culture free from the established societal norms of the East and South.

He theorizes it to have created a distinct flavor of individualism and independence.

  • The male to female ratio could be as high as 9;
  • While there was praise there was also prejudice, from white soldiers, superiors, and civilians;
  • Prostitution ran rampant, especially in San Francisco;
  • The Buffalo Soldiers even received various military honors for their service, with many members receiving the Medal of Honor;
  • They patrolled and explored the territory, built roads, forts, and telegraph lines, guarded major transportation routes and railroad construction crews, provided escorts for cattle drives and mail coaches, and were the police force.

However, there are discrepancies regarding the idea of self-sufficiency and prosperity thought to be prominent in the West. Blacks faced blatant and unflinching discrimination in the South, such that in the space of a single year 187915,000 blacks moved to Kansas to escape: These people who fled the South became known as Exodusters.

They saw Kansas as their promised land and believed the West would offer the prosperity and freedom they so deeply desired. And this was certainly as true for people of African descent as for anybody else.

Furthermore, the Buffalo Soldiers were able to fight cohesively with whites, despite being in segregated groups: Buffalo Soldiers and their white counterparts fought side by side in many engagements with Indians and outlaws.

The Closing of the Frontier

Social constructs and rules were often put aside, partially realizing the very American idea that the West was a place where anything was possible and everyone had the chance to gain their very own American identity. The Buffalo Soldiers even received various military honors for their service, with many members receiving the Medal of Honor.

The Buffalo Soldiers disproved the idea of American individualism and self-reliance, which Turner stated was developed in the West. It is because they are in the West, that many people actually required more help and assistance than perhaps any other place in the country. The Buffalo Soldiers, were stationed in the Southwest, an area that was quickly expanding, to provide some of that needed aide.

The Buffalo Soldiers even acted as a "federal police force, apprehending horse an cattle thieves, escorting prisoners to an from courts of jurisdiction, and enforcing the terms of Indian treaties.

The Buffalo Soldiers were clearly needed in the West in order to maintain order and defend American citizens from any raids or attacks. To say that the West develops self-sufficiency would be a lie for the most part, considering how heavily settlers had to rely on the government and its Army.