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Augmented effect of counseling by pharmacist in hospitalized cardiovascular disease patients a knowl

Factors affecting therapeutic compliance: A review from the patient’s perspective

Myocardial infarction MI is defined as the irreversible necrosis of the cardiac muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia. The estimated annual incidences of new and recurrent MI events are 550,000 and 200,000, respectively. Recovery from an MI can take a physical and emotional toll on the affected patient and loved ones. Recurring MIs may put patients at risk for reduced quality of life, heart failure, and death. Post-MI therapy and secondary prevention of MI involve the use of medication therapy and lifestyle modifications.

Myocardial infarction MI —the irreversible necrosis of the cardiac muscle secondary to prolonged ischemia—is a augmented effect of counseling by pharmacist in hospitalized cardiovascular disease patients a knowl cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality and is a frequent cause of hospital admissions in the United States. The recovery period can be a confusing, emotional time. Challenges that patients may face include initiation of new medications, medication access and adherence, and medication-related adverse effects.

For some individuals, the stress and anxiety related to the recovery period may lessen over time; however, a substantial number of patients continue to experience emotional symptoms that may impair their daily functioning. Studies have demonstrated that a commitment to cardiac rehabilitation; adherence to medication regimens; management of comorbidities; lifestyle modifications, including diet and weight loss, if warranted; and routine follow-up with primary caregivers can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

Nonpharmacologic Measures In addition to lifestyle modification, which may include smoking cessation, diet, weight loss, and exercise, cardiac rehabilitation is a key part of guideline-recommended nonpharmacologic treatment. Pharmacists may encourage patients to take an active role in managing their health, especially with regard to adhering to medication regimens, by recommending the use of pill reminders or pill boxes and refill-reminder programs. During counseling, pharmacists can remind patients to adhere to lifestyle modifications such as smoking cessation, establish exercise routines when appropriate, and eat a balanced diet low in saturated fat.

Patients should be reminded to maintain a healthy weight, control their blood pressure, and maintain healthy cholesterol levels by keeping LDL cholesterol and triglycerides below recommended levels. Pharmacists may also play a role in reducing hospital readmissions by ensuring that appropriate evidence-based pharmacotherapy regimens have been prescribed during hospitalization; monitoring for drug duplications, medication errors, and adverse reactions; and performing medication reconciliation.

In addition to medication dispensing, pharmacists can provide medication education and disease management information. Conclusion MIs are associated with significant short- and long-term mortality and morbidity.

Recovering from an MI can be challenging as patients adapt to medication regimens and lifestyle changes that are critical in preventing recurrence of MI. Nonadherence to post-MI treatment regimens is common and increases the risk of hospital readmission and mortality.

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Polypharmacy in pediatric patients and opportunities for pharmacists' involvement

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Counseling Patients on MI Recovery and Recurrence Prevention

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