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An overview of the main deities that ruled over rome in the 7th century

Diana Apollo The Twelve Gods were divided into four groups each of three beginning, middle and endas listed in Table 8. The creative and paternal gods make the universe, the life-givers give it life, uplifters harmonize it, and the guards preserve and protect it.

Jupiter has the highest place in the creative triad, setting in order souls and bodies, and being concerned with all things. Neptune completes the middle part of creation and especially governs the spiritual order, for he is the god who causes movement and all birth. The soul is the very first of the things produced and movement is according to being e.

Finally, Vulcan inspires the nature of the bodies and makes all the gods' seats in the universe. Of the protective and unmoved triad, Vesta is first because she preserves the very existence of things and keeps their being undefiled. Minerva guards the intermediate creatures unswerving in intelligent and spontaneous life, lifting them up from matter. Mars shines power upon the creatures in bodily form. Ceres rules the life giving, wholly producing all life in the universe, intellectual, spiritual and that inseparable from the body.

Juno keeps the middle part, devoting herself to the production of the soul.

For the intellectual goddess, Ceres, sent forth all the emanations of other spiritual entities from herself. Diana is allotted the end, arousing all the natural Logoi into activity and completing the self-sufficiency of matter. Of the last, the uplifting or harmonizing triad, Mercury is leader of philosophy. Hence, through it he leads souls up and with his dialectical powers sends them, in whole and in part, up to the good itself.

Venus is the prime-moving cause of the erotic inspiration pervading all things and adapts those lives led up by her to the beautiful. She is nude because her function, harmony, creates beauty and beauty is not concealed.

Roman religion

Apollo through music completes all things and corrects all things, moving them all together, and drawing them through harmony and rhythm towards the intellectual truth and the light there. In some lists Plouton replaces Vulcan. The Neoplatonists accepted the Twelve Gods as a legacy from Plato. They connected each Olympian with the planet or element usually associated with him or her. Demeter subsequently gave her place among the Twelve to Saturn, presumably because Kronos-Saturn was not an Olympian.

Vesta represents earth, Neptune water, Juno air, and Vulcan fire. I believe there is. The assignment of twelve gods to each of the months clearly preceded the allocation of the Zodiac Signs among the same twelve Olympians. It was an earlier rulership scheme. When the Zodiac was defined each of the twelve month gods automatically? Later, or even at the same time, the seven planets were also related to the same twelve Signs. If we can understand something of how the original allocation occurred, and how and why it became changed to the one we all know, honor and obey, we may perhaps improve our understanding of the relationship between the seven planets and the twelve Signs.

Much of what we do in astrology depends on this relationship. While it is impossible to state this is actually the true, basic sequence, there is general agreement from the other sources about the placement of Vulcan, Jupiter and Venus. The Altar at Gabii presented an interpretation problem in that photographs indicate the deities' symbols are interspersed midway between each of the depicted Zodiac Signs see Table 4.

Mercury's winged tortoise is halfway between the Sign of the twins and that of the crab. If we relate the symbol to the earlier Sign the allocation of the Rustic Calendar is confirmed, if it is associated with the later Sign then Manilius is confirmed.

The tortoise, like the crab, was a symbol for Cancer, the two creatures like the Sign are known for their hard shells; the wings on the tortoise indicate Mercury-Hermes is the guardian of the Sign. This points to the Manilius scheme. The only other representations we have, those at Hellin, etc. Assuming this was also so at Gabii, we have further evidence that the symbol preceding the Zodiac Sign is the one that should be related to the Sign and that Gabii is an example of the Manilius rulership scheme.

This suggests it is the Manilius version that became accepted rather than the one detailed in the Rustic Calendars. Five sources relate the Olympian gods to the Signs of the Zodiac see Table 5.

Is there any apparent rationale in the original distribution of the twelve Olympians among the twelve months and Signs? Athena-Minerva is the goddess of wisdom. At her birth, we're told she sprang from the head of Zeus clad in her armor, brandishing her lance, and giving her war cry.

Although a martial goddess, her most characteristic attribute is her practical intelligence and she is the patroness, inspirer and teacher of all specialized workers and artists.

Her chief traits are prudence and valor. She never goes to war unless forced and when she fights, always wins. Her emblem is the owl. Hephaestus-Vulcan is the lame, ugly smith-magician, the archetypal artisan and shaman, the god of technological perfection who creates many wonderful things.

He is also a deity of volcanic fire, which he uses in his forge. His emblems are his tongs and the quail, a bird that does a hobbling dance in springtime. Aries symbolizes the head from which Athena sprang.

The association of Hephaestus-Vulcan with Libra, a constant everywhere, is doubtless due to the forged Scales being the only manufactured object in the Zodiac. Ariel Guttman and Ken Johnson [8] astutely suggest that Athena and Hephaestus are paired because they were both born of a single parent, Athena from Zeus without any female intervention, Hephaestus from Hera without masculine input.

Aphrodite-Venus is the goddess of sexuality, beauty and love. She puts desire into men and animals, and stimulates their sexual urge, physical love and fleshly union. She represents the power of attraction that binds people together. Her emblem is the dove. Ares-Mars is simply the destructive, bullying god of war.

He delights in slaying and looting. In myth nothing much is told of him, other than his affair with Venus. His emblems are a wild boar, the wolf, and a bloodstained spear. We give the rulerships of these same two Signs to the planets named after this pair of gods. Gemini and Sagittarius were given to Apollo and his twin sister Artemis-Diana. Apollo represents both random and predictable illumination.

He is the god of the Sun, and both a musician and an archer, the one indicating serenity, respect for law and order, and divine harmony; the other, mastery over distances and hence detachment from the 'immediate'. He is the calm god of healing, of light, of intelligence, and of the arts, who keeps away evil and was associated with oracles and true prophecy.

His message to humanity "Know thyself! His emblem is the mouse and a tripod. Artemis-Diana is the goddess of the Moon.

Early Christians considered her their major rival; the Gospels commanded the total destruction of all her temples. She is the patroness of the hunt, of hunters, wild animals and young girls. She is the goddess of chastity who represents untouchedness, and is indifferent to love.

She presides over childbirth and, like her brother Apollo, is a skilled archer, never seen without a quiver of arrows and her bow. Her emblem, the she-bear, commemorates the most dangerous wild animal in ancient Greece. The connection of twins and archery to Gemini-Sagittarius is obvious. Cancer and Capricorn were given to a pair of gods that seem completely opposite to each other in their natures: Hermes-Mercury is the cleverest of the gods, the trickster-god of ruse and double-dealing, of theft and nocturnal amorous adventures.

He is also the astute companion of man, the unrivaled giver of good things, who protects the flocks, herds and roads, and is patron of trade, merchants, bankers and fortune-tellers. He is the go-between: Philosophers identified him with the divine intelligence, the Logos; Church Fathers compared him to Christ; and alchemists the Hermeticists of the Renaissance considered him the archetypal catalyst.

His emblems are the crane, his winged sandals and the caduceus. Hestia-Vesta never leaves Olympus. Her flame burns continually, representing light, warmth and security. Because of her kindness, she was the most venerated of the deities. Her emblem is the lamp. Vesta's time of the year we now call it Christmas continues to be celebrated today as a festival of lights. Mercury's guardianship of Cancer is not so strange as we may initially think: Zeus-Jupiter is the uncontested chief of the gods, the absolute master of the universe.

He is the All-Father, the supreme deity, who populated the heavens and earth by his promiscuous liaisons. He is sometimes called Jove, and the Jews and Christians know him an overview of the main deities that ruled over rome in the 7th century Jehovah. He represents prudence and order dominant over all. He is the grand dispenser of justice. His emblems are the eagle and the thunderbolt.

An overview of the main deities that ruled over rome in the 7th century, the jealous wife and sister of the supreme deity, is pre-eminently the goddess of marriage and childbirth, and hence of the perpetuation of the race.

Nature and significance

Her emblems are the cow, the lion and the peacock. Leo has always been considered the pre-eminent Sign of the universal ruler. The Greek new year began when the Sun went into the Sign. Leo is also associated with Cybele, the Mother of the Universe. Fixed Fire is the strongest, most absolute combination of mode and element; it is the Sign of the actualized potential, of the 'I am'.