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An overview of the afghanistans apartheid starting in 1996

The women of Afghanistan: Click on image for larger view. The Taliban, a right wing fundamentalist militia that originated in Pakistan, took control of Afghanistan in 1996. The Taliban was supported by a number of different countries. Pakistan provided military aid and officers. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates gave financial aid. Feminist and human rights protests in the United States torpedoed the deal. Its women made up 60 percent of the University teachers, 50 percent of the civilian and government workforce, 70 percent of the school teachers, and 40 percent of the doctors.

Women were allowed to do as they wished, wear what they wanted, and say what they wanted, to whomever they wanted to say it. In other words, they had the freedom to do exactly what the males in their society were doing. At the time, King Amanullah and Queen Soraya made it their mission to stop the repression of women in their country.

In 1926, in celebration of the seventh year of independence, Soraya had this message for the women of Afghanistan: Women should also take their part as women did in the early years of Islam. The valuable services rendered by women [are] recounted throughout history, from which we learn that women were not created solely for pleasure and comfort.

From their examples we learn that we must all contribute toward the development of our nation and that this cannot be done without being equipped with knowledge. This lasted for about 30 years. Then, in 1959, women were once again told they could remove their veils and start actively participating in their society.

In 1978 things really began to change for the Afghan women. The government prohibited forced marriage and set a minimum age for marriage. Labor laws were passed in 1984 that gave women equal job opportunities. Women began serving in the army and were able to become police officers. The Taliban was [is] the most repressive government in the world. It instituted its sexist policy under the guise of religious observance, but in doing so distorted the Islamic religion.

Laws against females have no connection to Islam. All around the world An overview of the afghanistans apartheid starting in 1996 sects allow females to work, attend school, and enjoy basic human rights.

  • This tension coupled with foreign-sponsored insurgents incited by the Deobandi denomination clergy led to the 1929 rebellion;
  • Then, in 1959, women were once again told they could remove their veils and start actively participating in their society;
  • Sima Samar, an Afghan physician, founded Shuhada as a network of schools and clinics, in 1989;
  • The University of Nebraska at Omaha has a long history of collaborating in Education.

They could not leave their homes without being accompanied by a close male relative. They could not speak out loud in public. They had to wear a burqa at all times.

Consequences of violating the Taliban laws include being beaten, whipped, or killed. According to these, Allah, the Islamic God, created different roles for men and women, because in their own way, each offers unique specialized functions and skills. Muslim women develop their rights and duties from with men. Every woman of Islam has freedom of choice and expression in many different areas. When it comes to marriage, the Quran does not endorse forced marriages; Muslim women may and in many Arab countries do, pick their own husbands.

Women can also keep their maiden names after marriage and be divorced, if desired. The role of a wife, according to the Quran is to keep her husband happy and mold her children spiritually and physically. Some specific duties include cooperating with the husband and protecting the home and possessions from theft and damage. According to the Quran, as a wife, a woman is to receive a gift from her husband called mahr.

This is a part of the marriage contract and is required for legal issues. Husbands are to provide their wives with food, shelter, and clothing. Wives cannot make demands upon their husbands that he cannot afford. The Quran, also defines political rights for Muslims.

It gives women the right to vote on public matters and to voice their opinions. Women can hold government positions and select their own leaders. Muslim women can earn money, own property, and control their earnings.

A Muslim woman may hold any job she wants and is qualified for including doctor, teacher, government official or police officer.

When Afghani governments suspended the rights of Afghan women, they did so in defiance of the Quran. Before the Taliban took control in 1996, the literacy rate for individuals 15 years and older was 44 percent for men, and 14 percent for women.

Under the Taliban, male literacy increased and female literacy decreased. According to the Gender Advisor to the UN System in Afghanistan, female literacy is approximately four percent now compared to 30 percent for males. Under the Taliban, Afghan women were deprived of the right to be educated. These underground schools educated females between the ages of six and 24.

All girls who attended were breaking Taliban laws and risked being punished.

History of education in Afghanistan

Teachers used scraps of anything they could find, including rocks and sticks, to teach their students. In the town of Naswan Shassdarak, at least 150 girls attempted to attend school everyday.

  • Female doctors even had to wear a burqa when performing surgery;
  • According to Samady 2001 , in the 1950s efforts to expand education and improve its quality were started;
  • In 1946, a Women's Institute was started in Kabul;
  • The Afghan government's policies on education will most likely come from the political leadership and recently adopted constitution;
  • None of his children attend school, and he has not been able to find work.

The floors were filthy, the room freezing cold, and everyone kneeled because there were no chairs. There was also no paper to write on and, no pencils to write with. Although it was difficult to teach and learn without the proper materials, the teachers continued to teach.

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Afghan males, on the other hand, attended religious schools provided by the Taliban. Because they are taught the Quran in Arabic, the men have no idea of the rights that book guarantees women. According to Afghanistan Online, throughout the history of Islam, women held many significant roles in their communities.

Men would seek advice from women because they were scholars in music, religion, literature, and medicine. Women had no restrictions for their acquisition of knowledge and education. Islam does not prohibit women from an education. The Quran and Hadiths of the Prophet obligate Muslim men and women to acquire knowledge and an education: If she is educated, the people are educated. Medical and health issues Afghanistan ranks number one worldwide in maternal mortality.

There are 147 maternal deaths to 1,000 births, and the fertility rate is six children per woman. The high risk of pregnancies is due to their social and economic problems, poverty, and most importantly the lack of education. Under Taliban law, women are only to be attended by female physicians, male physicians can only attended to women in their immediate family.

Afghan women are not only suffering from physical conditions, but also psychological illnesses. There are just a few psychiatrists and psychologists in Afghanistan to help these women.

They suffer from mental disorders because of what they witness on a daily basis, such as public beatings, executions, war, land mine explosions, and rape. CARE studies show thats one in three Afghan children are orphans.

  • Article 12 No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honor and reputation;
  • In 1982, the Kabul Pedagogical Institute was founded.

About three to four percent of their entire population is disabled from land mine explosions and there are 10 million land mines scattered throughout the country and fighting. UNICEF studies indicate that within the past 20 years, 400,000 children have been killed due to war, and about four million have died from malnutrition and illness.

Every year about 268,000 Afghan children under the age of five die from treatable illnesses such as diarrhea and pulmonary conditions.

The lack of immunizations causes many children to die from measles, tetanus, and polio. Since the Taliban took over, there has been an increase in starvation, malnutrition, and various diseases among the entire Afghan population. Due to poor health care systems, one in four Afghan children will not make it to a fifth birthday. Almost half of all Afghan children suffer from chronic malnutrition.

The lack of resources and funding, in health care makes the situation worse in Afghan hospitals that reuse sterile supplies. Disposable syringes may be used up to 100 times before being thrown away. When hospitals are busy, there may be three children per bed. There is no running water in the wards, and there is a major lack of equipment in the operating rooms.

Surgical gloves are reused; doctors wash them and use them again and again. Insects invade operating rooms that should be sterile. Afghans are the single largest refugee population in the world. There are an estimated two million refugees in neighboring Pakistan and Iran, and several 100,000 more scattered among the former Soviet Republics and another 800,000 still trying to leave Afghanistan.

Organizations that help Several organizations have been aiding Afghan women, children, and refugees for many years. Most of its operations are based in Afghan refugee areas in Pakistan.

It consists of only Afghan women, including doctors, and teachers. Its goals are to help with medical assistance, education, and inform the Afghan women of their rights as women within their culture and religious traditions. AWC has a school and a mother-and-child health clinic in Peshawar, Pakistan, as well as a hospital and a clinic in Kabul. It supports humanitarian aid to Afghan women. Leno wants to see a constitutional democracy establish in Afghanistan: According to the Baltimore Sun Sept.

Located in Quetta, Pakistan, an oasis 60 miles from the Afghanistan border. Sima Samar, an Afghan physician, founded Shuhada as a network of schools and clinics, in 1989. She believed that education and health comforted the refugee women and children.