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An introduction to the progression of ones career

For permission to use where not already granted under a licence please go to http: Abstract Background The future of academic medicine is uncertain. Concerns regarding the future availability of qualified and willing trainee clinical academics have been raised worldwide. Of significant concern is our failure to retain postdoctoral trainee clinical academics, who are likely to be our next generation of leaders in scientific discovery.

Objectives To review the literature about factors that may influence postdoctoral career progression in early career clinical academics. Design This study employed a scoping review method. Three reviewers separately assessed whether the articles found fit the inclusion criteria.

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Article selection The review encompassed a broad search of English language studies published anytime up to November 2015. All articles were eligible for inclusion, including research papers employing either quantitative or qualitative methods, as well as editorials and other summary articles. Data extraction Data extracted from included publications were charted according to author ssample population, study design, key findings, country of origin and year of publication.

Results Our review identified 6 key influences: It also detected significant gaps within the literature about these influences. Conclusions Three key steps are proposed to help support postdoctoral trainee clinical academics. These focus on ensuring that researchers feel encouraged in their workplace, an introduction to the progression of ones career in collaborative dialogue with key stakeholders and able to access reliable information regarding their chosen career pathway.

Finally, we highlight recommendations for future research. Our methodological approach enabled us to include a wide range of types of literature, from empirical studies to editorials.

Including such a broad range of literature may have introduced a risk of bias. The literature we sourced was predominantly North American, so may be of limited relevance to clinical academic training in other countries. Introduction Concerns about the future of academic medicine and, in particular, a potential shortage of trainee clinical academics have been expressed worldwide. For instance, in 2003, an international group of medical academics, academic publishers and stakeholders came together to form a campaign to promote partnerships and global debate about how best to revitalise academic medicine.

The aim of this programme, overseen by the National Institute for Health Research, was to develop a clear pathway for aspiring medical academics. Trainees on this pathway receive protected research time that includes their medical training. However, there are indications that only around a third of trainee doctors who complete a PhD within the UK progress to posts with clinical and academic responsibilities. Examining the available literature about the experiences of early career trainee clinical academics may help us understand the factors that influence this cohort's choice to pursue or discontinue a career in academia.

The aim of this review is to describe the range of motivators, facilitators and barriers experienced by this group in their career development.

From the factors identified in this scoping review, we make a number of proposals that could help support early career trainee clinical academics, as well as highlight areas where future research is warranted.

Methods Scoping review The goal of this review was to map out the literature on the factors that influence career progression among postdoctoral clinical academics and identify areas within the research that need further clarification and emphasis.

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To achieve this, we undertook a scoping review as this method provides a way to synthesise a broad outline of the available evidence. This framework was chosen for its comprehensiveness and wide use in scoping reviews. This process consisted of identifying a clear research question; searching for and selecting relevant studies that aimed to answer our research question; and charting, summarising and reporting the findings of these studies.

The framework does not include a quality assessment of included articles, as scoping reviews are designed to be rapid and broad in nature, as well as inclusive of all types of articles.

Thomson Reuters, 2016 Screening was conducted by VR, and a selection of included articles was reviewed by two other authors HB and NF to ensure that the topic they addressed adhered to our inclusion criteria. Search strategy This scoping review encompassed a broad search of English language studies published anytime up to November 2015. The following search engines were chosen as they covered a broad range of journals within health sciences: Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed.

Google Scholar was used as an additional search engine to identify additional studies, including those present within the grey literature.

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Further information pertaining to our search terms is given in online supplementary appendix 1. This included either the current perspectives of early career clinical academics or the retrospective viewpoints of researchers who progressed to a more senior position or left clinical academia following an early career post.

In this study, early career clinical academics referred to individuals who had recently completed a PhD and in a junior research post typically lasting no more than 5—7 years since their completion date. We excluded publications if they did not include early career clinical academics within their sample or where none of the participants sampled held a PhD.

The method adopted within each publication did not form part of our inclusion or exclusion criteria as studies using a range of methods were included.

Data extraction was performed by VR. Data were summarised qualitatively and quantitatively. To facilitate this, we extracted data regarding the following characteristics from all included studies: Overarching themes were identified inductively from the study findings by VR and reviewed by all authors.

A narrative summary was created for each theme. Results Our database search produced 1105 potentially relevant articles. After assessing the eligibility of these by title and abstract, 890 articles were excluded as they did not meet our inclusion criteria.

  1. Career information describes information that supports career and learning choices.
  2. Sell your strengths Show confidence in your abilities.
  3. Consider writing up a short proposal for how you would take on that challenge.
  4. One possibility is to use your skills as broad headings, giving supporting details under each skill, then following with a reverse chronological work history section. As Harvard psychology professor Ellen Langer has said.
  5. Search strategy This scoping review encompassed a broad search of English language studies published anytime up to November 2015.

For example, excluded articles may have focused on different clinical academic professional groups, such as nurses, or on senior trainee clinical academics. The remaining 140 articles were then screened according to the same criteria on the basis of their full text. A total of 50 articles were included in the final review see figure 1.