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An introduction to the life with a severe disability

SED SE 505

Intellectual disability is a disability that occurs before age 18. People with this disability experience significant limitations in two main areas: A number of people with intellectual disability are mildly affected, making the disability difficult to recognize without visual cues. Intellectual disability is diagnosed through the use of standardized tests of intelligence and adaptive behavior. Individuals with intellectual disability who are provided appropriate personalized supports over a sustained period generally have improved life outcomes AAIDD, 2011.

In fact, many adults with intellectual disability can live independent, productive lives in the community with support from family, friends and agencies like The Arc. Prevalence studies may not identify all people with intellectual disability. Many school age children receive a diagnosis of learning disability, developmental delay, behavior disorder, or autism instead of intellectual disability.

  1. Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. Supports enhance individual functioning.
  2. The DD definition requires substantial functional limitations in three or more areas of major life activity. A person's functioning or disability is viewed as a dynamic interaction between health conditions i.
  3. Prevalence of Disability in the U. Prevalence studies may not identify all people with intellectual disability.

Intelligence refers to a general mental capability. It involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly, and learn from experience. Intelligence is represented by Intelligent Quotient IQ scores obtained from standardized tests given by trained professionals.

Intellectual disability is generally thought to be present if an individual has an IQ test score of approximately 70 or below.

An Introduction to Severe Disabilities

What Is Adaptive Behavior? Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives.

Standardized testing aims to measure the following skills: A significant deficit in one area impacts individual functioning enough to constitute a general deficit in adaptive behavior AAIDD, 2011.

  1. Before the age of ten, an infant or child with developmental delays may be considered to have an intellectual or developmental disability if his or her disabilities are likely to meet the above criteria without intervention.
  2. The ICN further calls for. Prevalence of Disability in the U.
  3. It may take students with intellectual disability longer to learn in school. Intellectual disability is a disability that occurs before age 18.
  4. In this definition impairment is identified as a loss or abnormality in body structure or physiologic function, including mental function. According to the Developmental Disabilities Act Pub.

The effects of intellectual disability vary considerably among people who have them, just as the range of abilities varies considerably among all people. Children may take longer to learn to speak, walk and take care of their personal needs, such as dressing or eating. It may take students with intellectual disability longer to learn in school.

What is life really like for disabled people? The Disability Diaries reveal all

As adults, some will be able to lead independent lives in the community without paid supports, while others will need significant support throughout their lives. In fact, a small percentage of those with intellectual disability will have serious, lifelong limitations in functioning. However, with early intervention, appropriate education and supports as an adult, every person with an intellectual disability can lead a satisfying, meaningful life in the community.

How Can Supports Help? Supports include the resources and individual strategies necessary to promote the development, education, interests, and well-being of a person. Supports enhance individual functioning.

Overview and Introduction to Disability

Supports can come from family, friends and community or from a service system. Job coaching is one example of a support often needed by a new employee with intellectual disability.

According to the Developmental Disabilities Act Pub. Before the age of ten, an infant or child with developmental delays may be considered to have an intellectual or developmental disability if his or her disabilities are likely to meet the above criteria without intervention.

The major differences are in the age of onset, the severity of limitations, and the fact that the developmental disability definition does not refer to an IQ requirement. Many individuals with intellectual disability will also meet the definition of developmental disability. However, it is estimated that at least half of individuals with intellectual disability will not meet the functional limitation requirement in the DD definition.

The DD definition requires substantial functional limitations in three or more areas of major life activity. The intellectual disability definition requires significant limitations in one area of adaptive behavior.

  • Additional calls to address disability in the health professions highlight the necessity for health care professions educators, including nursing faculty, to begin to address the issue in earnest;
  • Adaptive behavior is the collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that have been learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives;
  • Standardized testing aims to measure the following skills;
  • Standardized testing aims to measure the following skills;
  • The effects of intellectual disability vary considerably among people who have them, just as the range of abilities varies considerably among all people;
  • The global estimate of the prevalence of disability is 1 billion people WHO, 2014c.

Those with developmental disabilities include individuals with cerebral palsy, epilepsy, developmental delay, autism and autism spectrum disorders, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder or FASD or any of hundreds of specific syndromes and neurological conditions that can result in impairment of general intellectual functioning or adaptive behavior similar to that of a person with intellectual disability.

The Arc does not encourage the use of nor promote the term mental retardation. The general public, including families, individuals, funders, administrators, and public policymakers at local, state and federal levels, are becoming aware of how offensive this term is and The Arc is actively working to make sure the public at large now use the preferred term of intellectual or developmental disability.

Definition, Classification, and Systems of Supports, 11th Edition. Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.

  • How Can Supports Help?
  • However, it is estimated that at least half of individuals with intellectual disability will not meet the functional limitation requirement in the DD definition.