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An introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust

Denial back to top Two of the greatest mass murders of the twentieth century were the Holocaust and the Nanking Massacre. However, both incidents have been denied from the day they occurred, and remain to be denied today despite the large amount of evidence that shows that they both, in fact did occur.

Genocides throughout the twentieth century have been denied and this paper will look at the evolution of the denial of the Holocaust and the Nanking massacre. Two other examples would be the Rwandan genocide and the Armenian genocide. The genocide in Rwanda was denied by the United States until President Bill Clinton publicly acknowledged it [in 200x? The Armenian genocide is still denied today by Turkey and by certain of its allies such as France. Before delving into the growth of denial and the denier methods it is important to have a firm grasp on what is meant by such words as Holocaust, massacre, revisionism and denial.

The first two are historical objectivity and historical relativity, which are both flawed. They continue by describing the third tier, historical science, by stating: Without this tier, there could be no progress of knowledge or advance in our understanding of the past and it is on this tier where we can more easily distinguish between rational revision and dogmatic denial.

Eisenhower foresaw that such horrible crimes against humanity would one day be denied. After visiting Buchenwald in April 1945 he gave the following speech: I visited every nook and cranny of the an introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust because I felt it my duty to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief or assumption that 'the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda'… I not only did so but as soon as I returned to Patton's headquarters that evening, I sent communications to both Washington and London, urging the two governments to send instantly to Germany a random group of newspaper editors and representative groups from the national legislatures.

In both cases it was obvious that there would one day be a desire to distort the truth because they had both started to be denied and have the facts distorted before the war was even over. This research will show the evolution of Holocaust denial and denial of the Nanking Massacre and see the differences and similarities between the two.

  1. These upset many revisionists as they called it a distortion of truth and anti-Japanese propaganda.
  2. If the Soviet Union should ever succeed in overrunning Germany it will lead to the ausrotten of the German people.
  3. Los Angeles, 2000 page 70-71.

Before delving into the growth and change of denial throughout the years I want to give an example of proper revisionism. Many people once believed, and some still do, that during World War II the Nazis made soap from human remains. Such stories came from prisoners in the concentration camps who received bars of soap marked with 'RIF'. However, research has shown that the Nazis attempted on a small scale to make soap from human fat, but it was never widely used.

It was only experimented with in small proportion. There is evidence that shows that soap was manufactured in small quantities near Stutthof camp, which is about twenty miles from the city of Danzig.

Sigmund Mazur testified at the war crimes trial that he helped in experiments in creating human soap. He gave the following detailed description of what he did: I boiled the soap out of the bodies of women and men.

The process of boiling alone took several days — from 3 to 7. During two manufacturing processes, in which I directly participated, more than 25 kilograms of soap were produced.

The amount of human fat necessary for these two processes was 70 to 80 kilograms collected from some 40 bodies. The finished soap then went to Professor Spanner, who kept an introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust personally.

The work for the production of soap from Human bodies has, as far as I know, also interested Hitler's Government. I used this human soap for my personal needs, for toilet and laundering. For myself I took 4 kilograms of this soap. Soap samples were also shown to the court. Although there were eyewitnesses and samples of small traces of human soap Thomas Blatt, a Holocaust survivor from Sobibor, who researched the human soap controversy intensely, concluded that he "found no evidence of mass production of soap from human fat, but indeed, there is without any doubt enough evidence of the experimental cannibalism in soap making in the cellars of the former Institute of Hygiene in Gdansk.

Holocaust Denial back to top The first stage of Holocaust denial took place before the war had ended and immediately afterwards. The first case of trying to distort the truth of what had happened in the Holocaust was led by members of the Nazi party. In 1944, according to Gerry Gable, editor of the antifascist monthly Searchlight, people who were in the SS: Sweden was one of the places they went.

Some went to the An introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust states, and into some South American countries. There they began to work for the readjustment of history. Holocaust denial material first appeared very very early after the war.

He wrote the book Le Mensonge d'Ulysse in 1949, which was translated into English after his death in 1967. As Deborah Lipstadt points out in her book Denying the Holocaust, soon after the war "the foundation had been laid for those who would not simply an introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust to relativize or mitigate Germany's actions — the arguments they needed to buttress their charges of a Holocaust 'hoax' had been made, some voiced by legitimate historians and others expressed by extremist politicians and journalists.

Besides claiming that eyewitnesses and evidence had been falsified, he continued by saying that "the final solution of the Jewish problem was really referring to the proposed transfer of Jews to ghettos in the east.

The word in conflict is ausrotten, which had been translated to mean the Final Solution and killing of the Jews, or as more widely used by deniers of the Holocaust to mean transportation to the east.

To directly translate ausrotten from German into English it comes out to be to extirpate or exterminate. This has been the definition of ausrotten from the 1940's and remains the same definition as of 1994.

However, in 1994 David Irving, a leading denier of the Holocaust, claimed that: Different words mean different things when uttered by different people. What matters is what that word meant when uttered by Hitler.

I would first draw attention to the famous memorandum on the Four-Year Plan of August 1936. In that Adolf Hitler says, 'we are going to have to get our armed forces in a fighting state within four years so that we can go to war within the Soviet Union. If the Soviet Union should ever succeed in overrunning Germany it will lead to the ausrotten of the German people.

There is no way that Hitler can mean the physical liquidation of eighty million Germans. What he means is that it will lead to the emasculation of the German people as a power factor. A post hoc rationalization is a fallacy based upon the idea that simply because one thing follows another, that the first was the cause of the second.

Simply because the Soviet Union did not overrun Germany and kill eighty million Germans does not mean that this was because the Soviets did not wish to kill them. However, the true meaning of ausrotten can be seen in numerous other documents. For example, in a 1944 conference about what to do with the American troops, Hitler said "to ausrotten them division by division" [12] Also when Major Rudolf Brandt told the Reich physician Ernst Robert Grawitz about the "Ausrottung der tuberkulose" [13] In the first case it is obvious that ausrotten means to eliminate because Hitler wants the American troops to be eliminated division by division.

There is no other way to interpret this; Hitler did not plan on removing American troops to the East. In the second case tuberculosis was a disease that was wiping out not only the concentration camps but the German population as well so ausrotten could mean nothing else except elimination. The dilemma behind the translation of ausrotten was brought out in the deniers fight to make people believe that the Holocaust did not happen, but as seen ausrotten could mean nothing else but the physical elimination of a people.

Throughout the 1960s, after the first wave of deniers who were around during the war had died, only one book had gained widespread recognition. This was the book The Myth of the Six Million by David Hoggan, which was highly cited and used by Willis Carto, who would go on to found the Institute of Historical Review in 1979, and who would start to lead the deniers movement in the late 1970s and continue to the present.

They called themselves revisionists but were in fact denying the Holocaust. The first big event the Institute of Historical Review put on was a reward of fifty thousand dollars to whomever could prove that the Holocaust had actually happened. They sent out letters inviting Holocaust survivors to attend their second 'revisionist' convention and try to prove their case.

Auschwitz survivor Mel Mermelstein responded, and when he got no response from the Institute he threatened to sue. Next, the Institute promised to try the case but with their own judges. When this did not seem to be working Mermelstein filed a civil suit against Carto and McCalden and the judge ruling the case "took judicial notice of the fact that Jews had been gassed to death in Auschwitz, ruling that it was not 'subject to dispute' but was 'simply a fact'.

The Institute also published a journal that was called the Journal of Historical Review and written by and edited by the most popular IHR members: The 1980s and 1990s saw the popularity of the denial movement spread into the mainstream.

The two leading figures of the time were Mark Weber and David Irving. The denial movement especially grew in Germany, who was at the time tracking down the last Nazi war criminals.

  • Many people once believed, and some still do, that during World War II the Nazis made soap from human remains;
  • In writing about this horrific event, Chang strives to portray it as an unexamined Asian holocaust;
  • However, in the end both atrocities are being denied and it is a job as a historian to tell the truth and the deniers' claims must be met and refuted so that one day when there are no survivors of the Holocaust of the Nanking Massacre, one can look back and see an accurate account of what happened during this ghastly times.

Germany received most of their materials from the Institute of Historical Review who had started translated its materials into German. The IHR's audience is "thousands of neo-Nazi skinheads in Germany who are making the political structure respond to their antiforeigner xenophobic agenda — an agenda that includes Holocaust denial as an ideological cornerstone. These deniers are "building on this fascination [and] want to remake the history of the Nazis into something positive.

Nanking Massacre

David Irving himself supposedly visited Hitler's mountain retreat and treated it as a shrine. Holocaust denial was soon to spread to the academic world of higher education.

Henri Roques, a grad student in 1985 "received a doctorate from the University of Nantes for his thesis, which argued that Auschwitz had no gas chambers. Roques's thesis was invalidated by the French minister of higher education only a year later in 1986.

However, this still shows a growing interest and active participation in the denial movement.

  • Imai Masatake, a military correspondent puts it best when he writes;
  • In contrast to Germany, the National Socialist seizure of power was accompanied by organized and spontaneous pogroms against the Jewish population from the beginning;
  • The Diaries of John Rabe;
  • Henri Roques, a grad student in 1985 "received a doctorate from the University of Nantes for his thesis, which argued that Auschwitz had no gas chambers;
  • The Rape of Nanking;
  • What Really Happened in Nanking:

No longer was Holocaust denial a practice of fringe groups and ultra conservatives, but it now was in being practiced in academic circles. French Holocaust denial got the largest boost in 1987 "from the leader of the right-wing, xenophobic, racist National Party, Jean-Marie Le Pen.

He stated that the purpose of his report and: This purpose does not include a determination of any numbers of persons who died or were killed by means other than gassing or as to whether an actual Holocaust occurred. It, further, is not the intent of this author to redefine the Holocaust in historical terms, but simply to supply scientific evidence and information obtained at the actual sites and to render an opinion based on all available scientific, engineering and quantitative data as to the purpose and usages of the alleged execution gas chambers and crematory facilities at the investigated locations.

He comes up with the following conclusion: After a study of the available literature, examination and evaluation of the existing facilities at Auschwitz, Birkenau and Majdanek, with expert knowledge of the design criteria for gas chamber operation, an investigation of crematory technology and an inspection of modern crematories, the author finds no evidence that any of the facilities normally alleged to be execution gas chambers were ever used as such, and finds, further, that because of the design and fabrication of these facilities, they could not have been utilized an introduction to the histroy of chinese holocaust execution gas chambers.

However, historians see the Holocaust as the time when six million Jews were intentionally killed using gas chambers along with other means. Therefore, Leuchter is in fact denying the Holocaust, and is soon after publishing his book looked upon as a figure of high status in the denier circles.

Leuchter may seem to know what he is researching and talking about since he claims to be an expert engineer with a college degree but Leuchter was "a man with a B. He never went beyond undergraduate work, and while doing it he did not even focus or major in engineering so his engineering expertise should not be taken as completely valid. The 1990s saw the greatest growth of Holocaust denial away from the fringe groups, the far right political parties, and the newly added academies and saw denial jump into the population; the everyday people.

In a speech in July 1991 Elie Wiesel, author of Night was giving a speech in his native country of Romania when he was interrupted by "a woman in the front row who shouted 'It's a lie! The Jews didn't die.

  • Some went to the Arab states, and into some South American countries;
  • Los Angeles, 2002 page xv;
  • The short entries he jotted down in his diary gives further evidence of what was going on;
  • The book is said to have originated in Russia during the nineteenth century and is alleged to prove the Jews conspired to control the world through financial and economical means.

We won't allow Romanians to be insulted by foreigners in their own country. The IHR began spreading denier material around Mexico city and denial literature was "published in Peru by a predominantly young neo-Nazi group: A survey conducted in Austria in 1991 showed that "39 percent of Austrians believe that 'Jews have caused much harm in the course if history.

These high percentages of racist Austrians and Austrians who believed the Zionist Conspiracy, made their nation ripe for deniers to move in and exploit the situation to gain numbers for their cause.