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An introduction to the history of the terrorist incidents world wide

#1: Terrorism is rare

Geographers paid relatively scant attention to the phenomenon until the terror attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001. Although much of the literature covered in this bibliography directly addresses the phenomenon of terrorism, there is also substantial literature on geographies of violence that is also of relevance.

  • The group publicly pledged its allegiance to the Islamic State in 2015, renaming itself the Islamic State in West Africa;
  • While Boko Haram still retains a core capacity to launch destructive attacks, it is on a downward trend and has lost much of its recruiting appeal;
  • The Trump White House shows little awareness of the trade-offs between authorizing increased U.

In the geographical literature on terror, the unifying theme has been a concern with the effect of terrorist violence on places and spaces that are affected by it and with the spectacular nature of the violence that terrorism engenders.

In fact, within geography, both implicitly and explicitly, terrorism has been understood to be spectacular violence, targeting an audience and directed toward place destruction and place alienation.

#2: Mass attacks are rarer still

Place is understood to be where human emotions, experiences, and life worlds intersect with specific locations—place is inseparable from the human experience of it.

Which terrorist actor, from state or nonstate, targets which places, at what scale, why, and to what effect are the questions at the heart of geographical inquiry on terrorism.

Reference Works Research on the geography of terrorism draws on a range of data. Many geographers in this field choose to collect their own data in the form of empirical, ground-level fieldwork; textual and ethnographic analysis; and even discursive imaginations and political performance. However, this does not mean that a useful body of data sets beyond such academic literature does not exist. Data sets on global terrorism are readily available on modern post-1970 terrorist attacks, largely as a result of increased US government funding following 2001 e.

Yet, less recent data on terrorism are harder to come by.

The 9/11 terrorist attacks

In all cases, collecting data on terrorism has been a challenging task, if only because of the variety of contested definitions of the concept. Indeed, the GTD acknowledges such struggles with its changing definition of terrorism throughout its data collection.

It is important for scholars to be aware that definitions of terrorism in data sets differ; the GTD defines terrorism as being perpetrated by a nonstate actor, whereas the Terrorism in Western Europe: Events Data data set includes events in which state authorities direct violent acts against civilians. Other differences of note are the ease a researcher has in establishing how data have been collected and coded in each set.

The financial and academic genesis of the data set is another necessary consideration.

  • These facilities host both lethal and nonlethal aircraft MQ-1 Predators, MQ-9 Reapers, and PC-12 that are used to undertake continuous intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance ISR operations and to conduct lethal strikes against high-value targets;
  • In 2017, cumulative attacks and fatalities linked to Islamic State affiliates excluding Boko Haram have significantly increased;
  • If Boko Haram and al-Shabab are discounted from the analysis, the overall growth in terrorist-related violence in Africa is significantly smaller over the ten-year period;
  • Unfortunately, such work is painstaking and requires patience.

Andrews, CSTPV provides evidence-based scientific analysis of the determinants, manifestations, and consequences of terrorism.

It contains information on domestic terrorism in eighteen western European countries and does not include any international terrorist events except between western European countries. The data are categorized by date and location, agents of attack, type of action, target, and casualties inflicted.

  • Such an expansion raises concerns about privacy and the power of the federal government;
  • Likewise, there is no indication that any of the major terrorist groups operating in Africa have decided to reorient their efforts and strike external targets.

Included in the data are the date and location of the incident, the nature of the attack, the number of casualties, and the group responsible. All data collected are publically available. Any use of this data set by geographers, however, requires review of the codebook available on the website to get an appreciation of how data have been stratified.

Do Terrorist Trends in Africa Justify the U.S. Military’s Expansion?

This data set looks at 3,329 international terrorist attacks that occurred from 1968 to 1977. Included in the data are the date and location the event, the terrorist and victim characteristics, and the life and property loss that resulted. Included in the data set are the date and location of the incident, the target audience, the number of casualties, a description of the attack, and the perpetrators of the attack including state sponsorship.

The collected data come from extensive primary research conducted by staff with regional expertise and fieldwork experience. Within this list are the databases Terrorist Indictments: Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on this page. Please subscribe or login. How to Subscribe Oxford Bibliographies Online is available by subscription and perpetual access to institutions.

  1. This is a major uptick from even 2014, when the U. Al-Shabab is a continuing concern for U.
  2. Investigative journalist Nick Turse estimates that the overall U. Over half of all terrorist attacks in the GTD since 1970 included no fatalities.
  3. Change is constant; stability rare.
  4. Terrorist organizations are a bit like business startups. Likewise, there is no indication that any of the major terrorist groups operating in Africa have decided to reorient their efforts and strike external targets.
  5. Denying sanctuary to Boko Haram in Northeast Nigeria and ensuring neighboring countries do not descend into failed states are important considerations. Place is understood to be where human emotions, experiences, and life worlds intersect with specific locations—place is inseparable from the human experience of it.

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