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An introduction to the history of the spanish revolution

A quick introduction Date: For a brief time, capitalism and the State were replaced by solidarity, mutual aid and respect for others. Workers and peasants, who were deeply influenced by anarchist ideas, ran society collectively and gained control over their lives, industry and land.

A central part of the revolution was the struggle against a fascist attempt to take over Spain. Anarchist and syndicalist ideas had deep roots among Spanish peasants and workers. It had two aims; first, to fight the bosses with mass action in the daily struggle and, second, to make an anarchist revolution by organising the workers and the poor to seize back the land, factories and mines.

The CNT led many militant and successful struggles against the bosses and the government. By 1936 it was the biggest union in Spain, with nearly two million members.

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But the CNT was always democratic and, despite its giant size, never had more than one paid official. The Anarchists did not restrict themselves to the workplace.

They also organised an anarchist political group to work within the unions the FAI and organised rent boycotts in poor areas. The CNT itself included working peasants, farm workers and the unemployed. In July 1936, fascists led by General Franco, and backed by the rich and the Church, tried to seize power in Spain. The elected government the Popular Front coalition of left-wing parties was unable and unwilling to deal with the fascists. It even tried to strike a deal with the fascists by appointing a right-winger as Prime Minister.

Because they would rather compromise with the right wing and protect their wealth and power than arm the workers and the poor for self-defence. Fortunately, the workers and the peasants did not wait around for the government to act. The CNT declared a general strike and organised armed resistance to the attempted take-over. In this way the people were able to stop the fascists in two-thirds of Spain.

It soon became apparent to these workers and peasants that this was not just a war against fascists, but the beginning of a revolution!

  • Their median age was twenty-seven, their median birth date
  • On October 1 Franco took overall command of the rebel armies;
  • Initially this revolution was practically written out of accounts of the war Hugh Thomas hardly mentioned it in the first edition of his book;
  • In March an overconfident Italian-Spanish force commanded by one of Mussolini's Generals, Mario Roatta, suffered an embarrassing defeat at the battle of Guadalajara, northeast of Madrid;
  • By 1939, the fascists had won the civil war and crushed the working-class and peasants with a brutal dictatorship.

These included the general take over of the land and factories. Small peasants and farm workers faced extremely harsh conditions in Spain. Starvation and repression were a part of their daily lives and, as a result, anarchism was particularly strong in the countryside. During the revolution, as many as 7 million peasants and farm workers set up voluntary collectives in the anti-fascist regions.

After landowners fled, a village assembly was held. If a decision to collectivise was taken, all the land, tools and animals were pooled together for the use of the entire collective. Teams were formed to look after the various areas of work, while a committee was elected to co-ordinate the overall running of the collective.

Each collective had regular general meetings in which all members participated. Individuals who did not want to join the collectives were not forced to. They were given enough land to farm on, but were forbidden to hire labourers to work this land. Anarchism inspired massive transformations in industry. Workers seized control over their workplaces, and directly controlled production by themselves and for the benefit of the Spanish workers and peasants.

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On July 24th 1936, the tram crews got together and decided to run the whole system themselves. Within five days, 700 trams were in service instead of the usual 600. Fares were reduced and an extra 50 million passengers were transported.

  • After providing the Loyalist government with a score of planes, France decided instead to propose an international policy of Non-Intervention that would bar all foreign aid to Spain;
  • Meanwhile, Mexico responded by shipping rifles to the Republic, and the Soviet Union sold the Spanish government arms in exchange for Spain's gold reserves;
  • Revolutionary History vol 1, no 2, Summer 1988.

Surplus income was used to improve transport services and produce weapons for defence of the revolution. With the capitalist profit motive gone, safety became much more important and the number of accidents were reduced. In the early stages of the revolution, the armed forces of the state had effectively collapsed. In their place, the trade unions and left-wing organisations set about organising the armed workers and peasants into militias.

Overall, there were 150,000 volunteers willing to fight where they were needed. The vast majority were members of the CNT.

All officers were elected by the rank-and-file and had no special privileges. The revolution showed that workers, peasants and the poor could create a new world without bosses or a government. It showed that anarchist ideas and methods such as building revolutionary unions could work. Yet despite all this, the revolution was defeated.

By 1939, the fascists had won the civil war and crushed the working-class and peasants with a brutal dictatorship.

  1. The Spanish Socialist Party in power and crisis, 1936-1939. Attempts, albeit very limited, to undermine the power of the landed oligarchy in southern Spain by the Republican government had met with the stiffest resistance by the land owners.
  2. A Cultural and Historical Reader Berg, 1993.
  3. Events elsewhere and his own precarious situation prevented him from following events closely in the intervening years which means his writings inevitably do not deal thoroughly with the whole period. Unfortunately there is no really satisfactory book on the Brigades in English.
  4. The one political party forcibly established by Franco during the first months of the war was an unholy alliance of these different factions and is usually known simply as the 'Falange' despite being the smaller of all the contending rightist groups prior to the war.
  5. It was to be a crossing of the Ebro in July of , into territory lost in March and April.

Why did this happen? The revolution was defeated partly because of the strength of the fascists. They were backed by the rich, fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. The CNT also made mistakes. It aimed for maximum anti-fascist unity and joined the Popular Front alliance, which included political parties from government and pro-capitalist forces.

  1. There are also a variety of studies which deal with foreign intervention and non-intervention in general and the role of each of the main powers in relation to the war in Spain. In March an overconfident Italian-Spanish force commanded by one of Mussolini's Generals, Mario Roatta, suffered an embarrassing defeat at the battle of Guadalajara, northeast of Madrid.
  2. Most of these have been written by anarchists or writers sympathetic to them.
  3. The following day the first International Brigades marched through the city, signalling world support for the city's defenders and placing a number of people with battlefield experience at key points.

This required the CNT to make many compromises in its revolutionary programme. It also gave the Popular Front government an opportunity to undermine and destroy the anarchist collectives and the workers militias, with the Communist Party playing a leading role in these attacks at the behest of Stalinist Russia.

Nevertheless, anarchists had proved that ideas, which look good in the pages of theory books, look even better on the canvas of life.