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An introduction to the history of holograms

History of Holography 2. Holography From times immemorial people have always desired to display the surrounding objects, their memories and visions. The arts of photography and cinematography originated in this effort.

However, people used only a symbolic representation of three-dimensional objects on two-dimensional plane. Although it was simple, it did not offer a complete illusion of the displayed reality.

Then holography was invented. A common method of recording objects is photography. The objects are displayed by the photographic camera following the laws of geometric optics, i. The photographic emulsion registers the light intensity. It means that only the amplitude of light waves is recorded. As a photograph does not involve any information about the wave phase the information about location and space structure of the object is lost.

The photographic record of a specific object is obtained when through the converging lens 3 we create a sharp image of the object in the plane of the photographic plate. If the object is rather distant at infinityat the distance of more than 25 m, the photographic plate is located in the focal plane of the objective 3 Fig. If we take a photograph of a close plane object, for example a picture, we locate the camera that an introduction to the history of holograms planes of the chart and photographic emulsion be parallel to each other Fig.

This absence has been eliminated by holography. Holography is a method of optical information recording. What is recorded on the hologram is not the image of the object itself, but the structure of the light wave deformed by its transition through a phase object or reflected from a non-transparent object.

2.1 History of Holography

Holography makes it possible to reproduce the light wave in an exact way. It is a total record about the wave, i. The phase of the light wave is recorded indirectly through the light intensity: Through the interference the phase variations are transformed into amplitude variations because the amplitude of the light wave in the given place depends on the phase difference of both wave motions.

Thus a stationary interference field containing information about the given object is generated. This field is recorded by exposing on a special high-resolution photographic material and thus a holographic record called hologram is created. Gabor derived the term hologram from the Greek words holos "total", and gramma "message". His paper provoked an immediate answer from all over the world. On this development participated also G.

At that time, the most accessible source of light for holograms was the mercury vapour lamp. Williams obtained their first flat holograms at the diffraction of the mercury vapour lamp beams Fig. Because of low coherence of its light the holograms were not deep enough. This barrier was overcome by the invention of laser. Maimam from Hughes Aircraft Corporation. The clear intensive light of the laser was ideal for creation of holograms and a new period of holography development started.

InAmerican radiophysicists and opticians E. Inafter reading the Gabor paper they decided to double his technology by utilising laser and off-axis technique of radar development. The result was the first laser transmission hologram of three-dimensional objects a toytrain and a bird.

They separated the reference beam from the signal beam thus excluding the mutual overlaying of the real and unreal images. The reference and signal beams intersected each other directly in front of the holographic plate in their holographic device Fig. Denisjuk, the soviet scientist, connected holography with the paper by Gabriel Lippmann, the Nobel laureate inabout the photography of an introduction to the history of holograms colours.

Thus it was possible to record the hologram of non-transparent reflecting objects Komar, Serov, If the light reflects from two or more interference maxima there also interference occurs among the reflected beams.

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In consequence of this interference only the beams of such wavelength and in such directions for which the beams amplify come from the volume hologram without reduction. To the development of the holography also contributed Stroke, who elaborated the present charts of holographic devices and theoretically suggested the possibility to construct an X-ray holographic microscope.

Inall groups of workers: Massey University of Michigan ; G. Labeyrie University of Michigan K. Linom Bell Labs ; and C. Hartmann Batelle Memorial Institute successfully recorded the reflex off-axis holograms.

The American patent was given to Hartmann.

Stetson published the first article about holographic interferometry. InShankoff and Pennington developed bi-chrome gelatine as a medium for recording holograms, which made it possible to record the hologram on any clean smooth surface.

In the same year, Gallery Editions Inc. In the same year, Larry Siebert from Conductron Corporation used the pulsed laser designed by himself to create the first ever hologram of a person. Further progress in holography was reached in when Dr. Benton invented the holography of white light transition during the research of holographic television in Polaroid Research Laboratories.

This type of hologram is visible in ordinary white light. His invention made the mass production of holograms possible. In the same year, the physicist Lloyd Cross and the Canadian sculptor Gerry Pethick developed a system with the sand table for production of holograms that did not need any expensive laboratory optics or insulating table to ensure stability during the exposure.

Nauman exhibited several self-portraits with the use of impulsed laser in the USA.

2.1 History of Holography

The first woman to utilise holography in art was Margareta Benyon Great Britain. InReutersward exhibited the works by Hans Bjelkhagen. Dennis Gabor was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for his invention of holography in InLloyd Cross developed an integral hologram by connecting the transient holography of white light with conventional cinematography to create three-dimensional images in motion.

Later, Cross established the Multiplex Company for production of hundreds of pictures utilising the holographic stereogram technology. In the same year, Benton changed the technology of white light transition into the formation of black-and-white achromatic images. Also inTung Jeong started to offer summer workshops on the holography for non-physicists at the Lake Forest College Illinois. While in the West the exhibitions ran slowly, the Soviet Union ran in research and production faster.

New inventions in holographic films and an introduction to the history of holograms appeared. The developed film was displayed on a holographic ground-glass screen. Two or three people could see the film in full dimensions without glasses. Inthe Museum of Holography was established in New York City as the international centre for understanding and development of this new medium. It was headed by its founder Rosemary H. Also inthe traveling exhibition of the Holographic Museum "Through the Looking Glass" based on the exhibition of the same name was opened in Toronto.

It toured the USA and the whole world. InMasterCard International, Inc. The National Geographic journal was the first to put a hologram on its cover. The March issue launched to the world almost 11 million holograms. In Novemberanother hologram on its cover illustrated the article "Searching for the First People".

In Decemberthe National Geographic published the most extensive hologram ever published in the Press of such a scene. The whole cover was holographic: The National Geographic issue of December had a cover worthy of this journal: In Novemberthe publisher Wilbur Garrett decided to use a hologram on the whole page in the anniversary issue.

Smith, the press and engravings manager, was to think out how to do it. It should be a double picture of the globe — one solid and one exploding — to express the fragility of our planet.

The photopolymer hologram is a reflection hologram giving very sharp images. It is successfully used in advertisements, consignment mail, wrappings and also as holographic portraits. In NovemberStephen A. Benton, the inventor of the white light transition hologram rainbow hologramdied. His friends and colleagues convoked Benton Vision, and the symposium in An introduction to the history of holograms Media Laboratory in Cambridge to remember his contribution to the field of holography www.

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