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An indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers

With his wife Vera, he served as executive director of the Association for Couples in Marriage Enrichment. Mace occupied a unique place among Friends because his thirty-three books several co-authored with his wife and many pamphlets appealed to both moderate evangelical Friends of FUM and liberal Friends of FGC. Many of their books were published by Abington, a Methodist press, and used the language of liberal Protestants. For example, David Mace drew upon modern exegesis to demonstrate that the Biblical norms about procreation were a product of a specific social situation.

He sought to return the Church from what he defined as a Greek inspired view of sex as evil to a more Hebraic understanding. Yet he also spoke as a social scientist, university professor, and president of professional associations in dealing with issues of marriage and family. For Mace silence about sex and a negative attitude towards sex caused emotional problems which could lead to repression and guilt and which brought a reaction resulting in pornography and casual sex.

Open discussion about and education about sex could help bring about sexual fulfillment in marriage. He advocated family planning, but his discussion of abortion written in dialogue form sought to provide guidance for a woman debating an abortion but left the final decision to her. Mace never discussed whether he believed abortion either was or was not a moral option. Whatever his opinion on homosexuality, he did not discuss it in his books on how to achieve a happy marriage.

  1. The tendency at Swarthmore during the 1960s was to tighten social regulations.
  2. Quakers - the religious society of friends we feel that the quality and depth of feeling between two people is the look with a healthy.
  3. But music is, on the whole, rare.
  4. Some people who knew a little about friends pretended to be quakers and the religious society of friends is better but after the event most of them look back. The wedding day Guests are greeted by a door keeper when they arrive for the marriage ceremony.
  5. Religious society of friends quakers quaker history sponsored link quote. A couple may decide to include readings and even a hymn.

As a social scientist Mace may have held radical views, but as an author he provided Christian self-help advice. David Mace worked closed with another convinced Quaker, Dr. In 1953 Calderone, at age 50, became medical director of Planned Parenthood, advocating birth control which in the 1950s was still illegal in 40 states. She helped persuade the American Medical Association in 1964 to endorse physicians discussing information on birth control and to give birth control pills to all patients who needed them.

Calderone became an apostle of sex education, traveling an estimated 50,000 miles a year speaking in schools, colleges, and church groups about the necessity of accurate information about sex. Calderone advocated sexuality as an "integral part of health and education. Calderone joined with Eric Johnson in writing an instruction book for families on sexuality.

Blood mentioned male homosexuality only in passing, and - like Mary Calderone - stressed that it was caused by a dysfunctional family situation - normally an overly protective mother.

Blood cited statistics, some derived from the Kinsey report, about the frequency of and dangers of an indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers before marriage. Most pre-marital intercourse came when the couple was already engaged and even here there were dangers from guilt which might intensify after marriage and cause serious problems in the relationship.

Blood cited several studies showing that illicit sex after marriage would almost always threaten the survival of the marriage. The primary inhibitor of sex before marriage was religion. He showed the existence of a double standard of behavior for men and women and the difficulties posed by religiously and racially mixed marriages.

On abortion, Blood cited contrasting policies in other nations and the frequency of illegal abortions in the United Statesbut provided no discussion of the emerging controversy on the legitimacy of abortion. My reading the major books that the Maces, Johnson, Calderone, and Blood produced before 1960 found almost no indication that they believed that the U. In 1960 as in 1950 the issues the Friends Family Relationships Committee addressed were prevention of divorce, family planning, sex education, and mixed marriages.

It publicly endorsed family planning, saw the dangers in but sought to be tolerant of inter-religious and interracial marriage, but internal controversy stopped any statement about abortion as late as the 1980s.

  • William penn essay examples 11 total results an indepth look at the society of friends cult, the quakers 1,264 words 3 pages;
  • On abortion, Blood cited contrasting policies in other nations and the frequency of illegal abortions in the United States , but provided no discussion of the emerging controversy on the legitimacy of abortion;
  • So they scheduled a workshop with the Family Relations Counsel seeking guidance on proper attitudes and strategies.

When British Friends Home Service, published Harold Loukes' pamphlet on marriage - it was read and approved on both sides of the Atlantic - he wrote as not as a social scientist but as a Christian, seeking the will of God.

His argument was traditional: Restrictions on lust are good; sex should not be a toy but should reflect a total relationship. There should be no sex before marriage and monogamy after. Divorce was a tragedy, but the meeting should emphasis forgiveness and could sanction remarriage within the meeting.

The family was designed for children and contraception as a way of limiting the number of children was needed but "if contraception is literally 'against conceiving', it merits all the suspicion it has received from Christian thought.

The statement came from the group of teachers, doctors, and psychiatrists who had formed as a working party with the intent of investigating society's treatment of homosexuality. Over a seven year period they became convinced that the Friends were neglecting to minister to an important subgroup of the society.

Their pamphlet argued that homosexuality as an orientation and a practice was a legitimate form of sexuality, was no more or no less a sin that heterosexuality, and that gay men should not be persecuted because of their sexual orientation.

While the ostensible focus was homosexuality, the authors conducted a far-reaching critique of traditional Christian morality as negative and repressive. While insisting that they wished to uphold the family and oppose free love, permissiveness, and casual sex, the authors insisted that "love cannot be confined to a pattern. No wonder that one scholar termed the pamphlet a revolutionary document.

I am told that homosexuals welcomed it and it infuriated evangelical Quakers, but have not found documentary evidence to support these assertions. The review in Friends Journal, by Lawrence Miller, coupled it with the officially sanctioned Loukes' pamphlet, supported the openness of the discussion of sexuality, thought the discussion of homosexuality "excellent" and complained that the authors role as counselors had caused them to emphasize unduly "the problems of the relatively abnormal and unhappy person.

When one member of the Family Relations Council offered to have a series of discussions on the pamphlet at her home, the other members did not accept the invitation and the official records made no comment upon its content. The pamphlet was republished in America, but not by Quakers.

In America undergoing an assassination of the President, a civil rights revolution, an intensification of the Cold War, and soon a major war in Vietnam, the time was not propitious for addressing the issue of the attitude of Friends to homosexuality. So far as I can an indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers, Towards a Quaker View of Sex first became important for liberal Friends in the 1970s when they began debating homosexuality.

The Dean of Women at Swarthmore at the time said the introduction and widespread use of the contraceptive pill after 1960 changed young peoples' attitudes, but some faculty thought the change came very rapidly after 1967. The director of Pendle Hill, who was directly involved in counseling students there thought that there was no revolution in the 1960s, rather there had been a gradual erosion of traditional standards.

  • The religious society of friends, commonly known as quakers, was founded in christian religious denomination by people who were dissatisfied with the existing denominations and sects of christianity;
  • Dinner dress for males was coats and ties and for women was dresses or skirts;
  • Members of the congregation sign the Quaker Marriage Certificate as a witness to both their presence and support for the marriage.

The difference may be in part due to age differences in the people in the secondary schools, colleges, and Pendle Hill. In 1964 counselors of the Young Friends noticed a change in the motivation of those attending conferences. So they scheduled a workshop with the Family Relations Counsel seeking guidance on proper attitudes and strategies. The workshop's conclusion - that young Friends wanted more structure and guidance - makes me wonder who those in attendance represented.

The consensus of those I interviewed was that the sexual revolution came first and built rapidly, but soon could not be separated from increasing use of drugs, the civil rights movement, the anti-war protests, women's liberation, and a general counter-cultural reaction against traditional authority and institutions, including the family, schools, churches, and moral standards. Friends looked to the Family Relations Committee to provide guidance and it looked to the Quaker sex experts.

The Committee did a survey to find the impact of its previous emphasis upon education. It found that half of the meetings had no books about sexuality, marriage and Christian ethics; two had only 1 book. Overseers felt uncomfortable with the subject in providing oversight to marriages. If there were problems, couples were referred to the Yearly Meeting's professional counselors. The committee sought to provide workshops for meetings, which some Friends reluctantly agreed to attend, sponsored sessions at Friends General Conference, and had special conferences and lectures at Pendle Hill.

Interest groups on sexuality became a constant feature of FGC summer gatherings. Mace, Mary Calderone, Dorothy Samuel, Emily Mudd and others lectured, led retreats at Pendle Hill and elsewhere on sexuality and marriage counseling, teaching Friends how to conduct marriage enrichment weekends. The Family Relations Committee published Mace's pamphlet on the same subject.

Still, Friends did not issue statements showing shifts in their view of sexuality until the early seventies, and even then traditional views prevailed, at least in the discipline.

The three Philadelphia Quaker colleges and Pendle Hill had long had policies to deal with drugs an indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers premarital sex. All had a long tradition of involving students in the formulating and enforcing social regulations in consultation with deans and faculty.

  • It was a pretty slow process;
  • The next question is often, "What do Quakers believe?
  • Quakers or friends look to god for authority the predominantly liberal and unprogrammed yearly meeting of the religious society of friends quakers in;
  • Individual Quakers hold diverse views concerning life after death.

Swarthmore had regulations about when boys and girls could be in each others' rooms: Haverford and Bryn Mawr allowed boys and girls to be in rooms until 2 am, but no member of the opposite sex was allowed in a room from 2 am until 7: At Haverford when girls were in the dorm males and females had to either stand or remain seated with feet on the floor, but there was no attempt to enforce this regulation.

An interpretation of the honor code in 1964-65 specified that only "acts of a sexual nature" counted as "disrespect for a woman. The dean announced to the boys, that if they were arrested and thrown in jail, then "at least, I will know where you are.

An indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers

Haverford's honor code remained in effect, and social problems like alcohol and drugs often came to the attention of the dean only when they impacted academic performance. At Swarthmore if students wished to marry, one of them would have to drop out of college. At Bryn Mawr a student who became pregnant would have to leave school. If she had the baby and left it with her parents, she could return to school an indepth look at the society of friends cult the quakers live in the dorms.

Occasionally married students whose husbands were absent as in World War II lived in the dorms. Married students living off campus continued to attend classes, thought most of these were in graduate school. The tendency at Swarthmore during the 1960s was to tighten social regulations. With what appears general approbation from students, faculty, parents and the board, Swarthmore initiated a dress code.

Dinner dress for males was coats and ties and for women was dresses or skirts. Any students who came to dinner in sandals without socks would be barred. Concerts required coats and ties with shirts tucked in. Those who violated such regulations had to do labor: When on one occasion, the judicary complained about the rules, a dean rebuked the members - arguing that the judicary was not a policy making body and discussion could be done elsewhere. Swarthmore cared about its reputation for training gentlemen and lady scholars.

Even before the 1960s there were gaps in the social regulations that make me wonder if the purpose was to provide a socially respectable environment and to reassure parents that the college did provide supervision but which would not unduly restrict students. For example, Haverford's honor code applied only to the campus; Bryn Mawr students on weekends could be off campus with a boy until 3 am.

Swarthmore allowed some students to live off campus where the dorm restrictions did not apply. The colleges were well aware that violations could easily take place even on campus. For example, at Swarthmore when students asked to increase the amount of time they could be in each others' rooms on Sunday afternoon by fifteen minutes, the dean refused.

When a boy complained that there was nothing that could be done in two hours that another fifteen minutes would change, the dean replied "but they could do it twice.

And the faculty agreed. For example, at Swarthmore a senior who had passed his honors exam with High Honors spent senior week living with a freshman girl in a dorm.

Her parents called the college because they didn't know where she was. A search discovered the two. The faculty, which voted all degrees individually at Swarthmore, debated the appropriate punishment. The girl was expelled; the faculty determined that since outside examiners had awarded the grades to the young man, they could not rescind it. However, the young man could not graduate with his class and would have to wait a year. For the presidents, deans, some faculty and many but not all students, upholding moral standards were important.

Most faculty believed that colleges like the wider society had rules.