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America s football and the world s soccer

Europe England and Scotland had the first leagues, but clubs sprang up in most European nations in the 1890s and 1900s, enabling these nations to found their own leagues.

Many Scottish professional players migrated south to join English clubs, introducing English players and audiences to more-advanced ball-playing skills and to the benefits of teamwork and passing. Itinerant Scots were particularly prominent in central Europe. The interwar Danubian school of football emerged from the coaching legacies and expertise of John Madden in Prague and Jimmy Hogan in Austria. During the 1930s, Italian clubs and the Italian national team recruited high-calibre players from South America mainly Argentina and Uruguayoften claiming that these rimpatriati were essentially Italian in nationality; the great Argentinians Raimondo Orsi and Enrique Guaita were particularly useful acquisitions.

But only after World War II was the preeminence of the home nations notably England unquestionably usurped by overseas teams. Most devastating were later, crushing losses to Hungary: European football has also reflected the wider political, economic, and cultural changes of modern times. Heightened nationalism and xenophobia have pervaded matches, often as a harbinger of future hostilities.

During the 1930s, international matches in Europe were often seen as national tests of physical and military capability. More recently, racism became a more prominent feature of football, particularly during the 1970s and early 1980s: In general terms, racism at football reflected wider social problems across western Europe. In postcommunist eastern Europe, economic decline and rising nationalist sentiments have marked football culture too. Club football reflects the distinctive political and cultural complexities of European regions.

In Britain, partisan football has been traditionally associated america s football and the world s soccer the industrial working class, notably in cities such as GlasgowLiverpool, Manchesterand Newcastle. The top professionals and largest clubs have been the principal beneficiaries. The bargaining power of players was strengthened greatly, enabling top stars to multiply their earnings with large salaries and signing bonuses.

Inevitably, the financial boom had exacerbated inequalities within the game, widening the gap between the top players, the largest clubs, and the wealthiest spectators and their counterparts in lower leagues and the developing world.

North and Central America and the Caribbean Football was brought to North America in the 1860s, and by the mid-1880s informal matches had been contested by Canadian and American teams. It soon faced competition from other sports, including variant forms of football.

  1. In the Caribbean, football traditionally paled in popularity to cricket in former British colonies.
  2. More liberal anti-hooligan strategies encourage dialogue with supporters. Playing fantasy football and following March Madness unites colleagues all over the country after work.
  3. Since the late 1960s, however, English fan hooliganism has been even more notorious , especially when English supporters have followed their teams overseas. North and Central America and the Caribbean Football was brought to North America in the 1860s, and by the mid-1880s informal matches had been contested by Canadian and American teams.

In the United Statesgridiron football emerged early in the 20th century as the most popular sport. But, beyond elite universities and schools, soccer as the sport is popularly called in the United States was played widely in some cities with large immigrant populations such as PhiladelphiaChicagoCleveland Ohioand St.

Between the world wars, the United States attracted scores of European emigrants who played football for local teams sometimes sponsored by companies. Football in Central America struggled to gain a significant foothold in competition against baseball.

In Costa Ricathe football federation founded the national league championship in 1921, but subsequent development in the region was slower, with belated FIFA membership for countries such as El Salvador 1938Nicaragua 1950and Honduras 1951. In the Caribbean, football traditionally paled in popularity to cricket in former British colonies. North American leagues and tournaments saw an infusion of professional players in 1967, beginning with the wholesale importation of foreign teams to represent American cities.

Other aging international stars soon followed, and crowds grew to European america s football and the world s soccer, but a regular fan base remained elusiveand NASL folded in 1985.

An indoor football tournament, founded in 1978, evolved into a league and flourished for a while but collapsed in 1992. In North America football did establish itself as the relatively less-violent alternative to gridiron football and as a more socially inclusive sport for women. It is particularly popular among college and high school students across the United States.

In 1996 a new attempt at establishing a professional outdoor league was made. The MLS proved to be the most successful American soccer league, expanding to 20 teams with two in Canada by 2016 while also signing a number of lucrative broadcasting deals with American television networks and some star players from European leagues. United, August 22, 2009. British influence in mining and railroads encouraged the founding of football clubs in Mexico in the late 19th century.

A national league was established in 1903. Mexico is exceptional in that its mass preference for football runs counter to the sporting tastes of its North American neighbours.

  1. For instance, the International Olympic Committee has more than 200 member countries, more than the total number of UN member states that has 192 member countries. Hugo Sanchez at Real Madrid was the only Mexican player to reach the highest world level in the 20th century, but the 21st saw a number of Mexican standouts excel with top European clubs.
  2. Stadiums in Latin America are constructed with moats and high fences.
  3. Indonesian national team Finished in 1962, the "GBK Stadium" — as it is sometimes known — was funded partly by a loan from the Soviet Union. The first documented match took place in Cape Town in 1862, after which the game spread rapidly throughout the continent, particularly in the British colonies and in societies with vibrant indigenous athletic traditions.
  4. In England attempts at reducing hooliganism have included all-seated stadiums and the creation of family-only stands. In Asia, during the same germinal period, British traders, engineers, and teachers set up football clubs in such colonial outposts as Shanghai , Hong Kong , Singapore , and Burma Myanmar.

The national league system is the most commercially successful in the region and attracts players from all over the Western Hemisphere. While the national team has been ranked highly by FIFA, often figuring in the top ten, Mexico initially did not produce the world-class calibre of players expected of such a large football-crazed nation.

Hugo Sanchez at Real Madrid was the only Mexican player to reach the highest world level in the 20th century, but the 21st saw a number of Mexican standouts excel with top European clubs. South America Football first came to South America in the 19th america s football and the world s soccer through the port of Buenos Aires, Argentinawhere European sailors played the game.

Members of the British community there formed the first club, the Buenos Aires Football Club FCin 1867; about the same time, British railway workers started another club, in the town of Rosario, Argentina.

The first Argentinian league championship was played in 1893, but most of the players belonged to the British community, a pattern that continued until the early 20th century. Brazil is believed to be the second South American country where the game was established. In ColombiaBritish engineers and workers building a railroad near Barranquilla first played football in 1903, and the Barranquilla FBC was founded in 1909.

In Bolivia the first footballers were a Chilean and students who had studied in Europe, and in Peru they were expatriate Britons. In Venezuela, British miners are known to have played football in the 1880s. Ronaldinho Ronaldo de Assis Moreirastar of the Brazilian national football soccer team, 2006. Boys, mostly from poorer backgrounds, played from an early age, with passion, on vacant land and streets.

The exodus of South American players to European clubs that paid higher salaries began after the 1930 World Cup and has steadily increased. By the late 1930s, football had become a crucial aspect of popular culture in many South American nations; ethnic and national identities were constructed and played out on america s football and the world s soccer increasingly international stage.

In South American nations, nonwhite players fought a successful struggle to play at the top level: In Uruguay, a nation of largely mixed European descent, local players learned both the physical style played by the English and the more refined passing game of the Scots, producing a versatility that helped their national team win two Olympic championships and the World Cup between 1924 and 1930.

Domestic league championships are split into two or more tournaments each season with frequent variations in format. Africa European sailors, soldiers, traders, engineers, and missionaries brought football with them to Africa in the second half of the 19th century.

  • Indonesian national team Finished in 1962, the "GBK Stadium" — as it is sometimes known — was funded partly by a loan from the Soviet Union;
  • It has been referred as the game that unifies humanity;
  • In South American nations, nonwhite players fought a successful struggle to play at the top level;
  • In Colombia , British engineers and workers building a railroad near Barranquilla first played football in 1903, and the Barranquilla FBC was founded in 1909;
  • These countries have also produced the most frequent winners of the annual Asian Club Championship, first contested in 1967.

The first documented match took place in Cape Town in 1862, after which the game spread rapidly throughout the continent, particularly in the British colonies and in societies with vibrant indigenous athletic traditions. During the interwar period, African men in cities and towns, railroad workers, and students organized clubs, associations, and regional competitions.

Teams from AlgeriaMoroccoand Tunisia competed in the North African championship, established in 1919, and vied for the North African Cup, introduced in 1930. In South Africa the game was very popular by the early 1930s, though it was organized in racially segregated national associations for whites, Africans, Coloureds persons of mixed raceand Indians. Moroccan forward Larbi Ben Barek became the first African professional in Europe, playing for Olympique de Marseille and the French national team in 1938.

Modernizing colonial regimes provided new facilities and created attractive competitions, such as the French West Africa Cup in 1947.

  • Success also came at youth level as Nigeria 1985 and Ghana 1991 and 1995 claimed under-17 world titles;
  • Since the late 1960s, however, English fan hooliganism has been even more notorious , especially when English supporters have followed their teams overseas;
  • In Argentina, football matches were briefly suspended by the courts in 1999 in a bid to halt the violence;
  • One promising development for the continent came in 2010 when Qatar was announced as the host of the 2022 World Cup, which will be the first World Cup held in the Middle East;
  • In general terms, racism at football reflected wider social problems across western Europe;
  • The FLN eleven, who lost only 4 of 58 matches during the period 1958—62, embodied the close relations between nationalist movements and football in Africa on the eve of decolonization.

The migration of talented Africans to European clubs intensified. The FLN eleven, who lost only 4 of 58 matches during the period 1958—62, embodied the close relations between nationalist movements and football in Africa on the eve of decolonization.

Independent African states encouraged football as a means of forging a national identity and generating international recognition. African and European coaches emphasized craft, creativity, and fitness within solid but flexible tactical schemes. In the late 1970s, the migration of talented players overseas began hampering domestic leagues. After being eliminated without losing a match at the 1982 World Cup in Spain tied with Italy in its group, Cameroon lost the tiebreaker on the basis of total goals scoredCameroon reached the quarterfinals at the 1990 World Cup in Italy, thereby catapulting African football into the global spotlight.

Success also came at youth level as Nigeria 1985 and Ghana 1991 and 1995 claimed under-17 world titles. In Australia it could not dislodge the winter games of Australian rules football codified before soccer and rugby. British immigrants to Australia did relatively little to develop football locally.

The league has widened its scope, however, to include a highly successful Perth side, plus a Brisbane club and even one from Auckland, New Zealand.

Share of football/soccer players in the United States in 2018, by age

In New ZealandScottish players established clubs and tournaments from the 1880s, but rugby became the national passion. In Asia, during the same germinal period, British traders, engineers, and teachers set up football clubs in such colonial outposts as ShanghaiHong KongSingaporeand Burma Myanmar.

Football in India was particularly prominent in Calcutta Kolkata among British soldiers, but locals soon adopted cricket. In JapanYokohama and Kobe housed large numbers of football-playing foreigners, but local people retained preferences for the traditional sport of sumo wrestling and the imported game of baseball. At the turn of the 21st century, football became increasingly important in Asian societies.

In Irannational team football matches became opportunities for many to express their reformist political views as well as america s football and the world s soccer broad public celebration.

The Asian game is organized by the Asian Football Confederation, comprising 46 members in 2011 and stretching geographically from Lebanon in the Middle East to Guam in the western Pacific Ocean.

The Asian Cup for national teams has been held quadrennially since 1956; Iran, Saudi Arabiaand Japan have dominated, with South Korea a regular runner-up.

These countries have also produced the most frequent winners of the annual Asian Club Championship, first contested in 1967. Asian economic growth during the 1980s and early 1990s and greater cultural ties to the West helped cultivate club football. Attendance and revenue declined from 1995, but the league survived and was reorganized into two divisions of 16 and 10 clubs, respectively, by 1999.

The league grew to 30 teams by 2005 but had reduced to 18 by 2018. Some memorable international moments have indicated the potential of football in Asia and Oceania. Increased representation in the World Cup finals since 1998 Asia has sent four teams, and since 2006 Oceania has had a single automatic berth has helped development of the sport in the region. Meanwhile, domestic club competitions across Asia and Oceania have been weakened by the need for top america s football and the world s soccer players to join better clubs in Europe or South America to test and improve their talents at a markedly higher level.

One promising development for the continent came in 2010 when Qatar was announced as the host of the 2022 World Cup, which will be the first World Cup held in the Middle East. Spectator problems The spread of football throughout the globe has brought together people from diverse cultures in celebration of a shared passion for the game, but it has also spawned a worldwide epidemic of spectator hooliganism. High emotions that sometimes escalate into violence, both on and off the field, have always been a part of the game, but concern with fan violence and hooliganism has intensified since the 1960s.

The early focus of this concern was British fans, but the development of the anti-hooligan architecture of football grounds around the world points to the international scope of the problem. Stadiums in Latin America are constructed with moats and high fences.

Some of the first modern hooligan groups were found in Scotlandwhere religious sectarianism arose among the supporters of two Glasgow teams: Since the late 1960s, however, English fan hooliganism has been even more notoriousespecially when English supporters have followed their teams overseas.

The nadir of fan violence came during the mid-1980s. At the European Cup final in 1985 between Liverpool and the Italian club Juventus at Heysel Stadium in Brussels39 fans 38 Italian, 1 Belgian died and more than 400 were injured when, as Liverpool supporters charged opposing fans, a stadium wall collapsed under the pressure of those fleeing.

In response, English clubs were banned from European competition until 1990, but by then hooliganism had become established in many other European countries. By the turn of the 21st century, self-identifying hooligans could be found among German, Dutch, Belgian, and Scottish supporters.

Elsewhere, militant fans included the ultras in Italy and southern France, and the various hinchadas of Spain and Latin America, whose levels of violence varied from club to club. Argentina has experienced perhaps the worst consequences, with an estimated 148 deaths between 1939 and 2003 from violent incidents that often involved security forces.