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A look at the timelines of the internet from its earliest origins

Telex starts as a way to distribute military messages, but soon becomes a world-wide network of both official and commercial text messaging that will persist in some countries into the 2000s. Telex uses teleprinters, which date back to the 1910s for use in telegraphy. But instead of using pricey dedicated telegraph lines, the telex system connects those teleprinters to each other over voice telephone lines, routed by modified telephone switches.

Wireless versions of Telex soon connect remote regions of the developing world. His Mundaneum now combines enhanced card catalogs with sixteen million entries, photos, documents, microfilm, and more.

He is working on integrating telegraphy and multiple media, from sound recordings to television. In the 1930s British writer H. These approaches to organizing information differ.

The idea is that people will continually build on each other's associative trails through the world's knowledge, helping tackle the growing problem of information overload.

The Memex is the brainchild of top U. The basic mechanism he suggests is a microfilm automatic selector similar to those built by optics pioneer Emmanuel Goldberg in the early 1930s. Modems will be adapted to computers in 1953 for the upcoming SAGE system, and commercialized by Bell Telephone in 1958. By letting computers use normal voice telephone lines, they offer greater coverage and lower costs than dedicated telegraph or leased data lines.

By 1958, this produces the A look at the timelines of the internet from its earliest origins standard still used in North America. By the 1980s, phone companies will be leasing digital lines to commercial customers. Besides networking SAGE also helps pioneer interactive computing and multi-user systems. Hundreds of people use the system simultaneously, interacting through groundbreaking graphical consoles. Each console has its own large screen, pointing device a light guna telephone, and an ashtray.

Ever on the alert for a Soviet attack, SAGE operators would describe the experience as endless hours of boredom…broken by seconds of sheer terror. But the system will operate until the 1980s. Timesharing — the first online communities User on the Dartmouth Time-sharing system By the early 1960s many people can share a single computer, using terminals often repurposed teleprinters to log in over phone lines.

These timesharing computers are like central hubs with spokes radiating to individual users. Although the computers generally can't connect to each other, these are the first common multi-user systems, with dozens of people online at the same time.

As a result, timesharing pioneers many features of later networks, from file sharing to e-mail and chat. Typical 1960s users are a mix of business people, bank employees, students and researchers, and military personnel. Using telephone lines, SABRE links 2,000 terminals in 65 cities to a pair of IBM 7090 computers, delivering data on any flight in less than three seconds. It remains the basis of modern travel sites including Travelocity. Carterfone Carterfone with commemorative plaque Used by Texas oilmen, the Carterfone acoustically connects mobile radios to the telephone network.

Telephone companies sue in 1966. Users in some countries will wait until the 1990s for a look at the timelines of the internet from its earliest origins freedoms.

Modems create a kind of de facto net neutrality; telephone companies have no control over what is sent over their lines with a modem. Cramming More Users onto the Same Line ADS multiplexers advertisement Since telegraph days, people have been refining techniques for squeezing more connections onto a single wire.

Early multiplexers for computers let up to 15 terminals share the same line, by assigning each of them a particular frequency Frequency Division Multiplexing.

In 1968, a new generation of time-division multiplexers gives each user a small slice of time in turn, radically expanding the number of computer terminals that can share the same line — from 15 to 45. This dramatically lowers costs for businesses, and the multiplexer market becomes highly competitive.

Advances in acoustic couplers — the devices that let you connect your terminal to a regular telephone handset — also help more and more people go online.

But others come online within weeks or months. During the 1960s researchers in various countries have been working on bringing automation — and online transactions — to customers in the form of an Automated Teller Machine ATM. The paper used by some of the first ATMs is slightly radioactive, to be machine readable. The 1970s will also see rapid growth in behind-the-scenes financial transaction networks, like SWIFT for wire transfers. The two latter systems, based on work by Philips, broadcast data on an unused portion of the TV signal.

They evolve into the Teletext information services found on most European TVs into the 2000s. Suddenly, messages are free to travel anywhere the network goes, and email explodes. Nearly all other networks add email features. As the unmarked van drives through the San Francisco Bay Area, stuffed full of hackers and sometimes uniformed generals, it is pioneering wireless, packet-switched digital networks, including the kind your mobile phone uses today.

World Wide Web Timeline

The van will also play a huge role in 1977 as a major birthplace of the Internet. Local area networks LANs evolved from the early links to peripheral devices such as terminals and printers. SNA will evolve into an internet-like network of networks, albeit one reserved for those that were SNA compliant.

Most are packet-switched, like Telenet, Tymnet, and other major players. The ill-fated Datran and a couple of others are circuit switched like a telephone system. That's a radical idea when computers are mostly inaccessible to ordinary people, and seen by the counterculture as tools of government and corporate power. Networks Apple II personal computer, 1977 Until the late 1970s the momentum in computing has been all about togetherness — users first sharing computers, then linking over networks and soon networks of networks.

But the rise of the personal computer from the mid 1970s makes something once unthinkable an everyday reality: While the new machines can be connected to networks and to each other, a lot of users both at home and work don't bother.

They run their own programs off of floppy disks. Richard Bartle and Roy Trubshaw, two students at the University of Essex, write a program that allows many people to play against each other on-line. MUDs become popular with college students as a means of adventure gaming and for socializing.

By 1984, there will be more than 100 active MUDs and variants around the world. Rise of Online Services and BBSs CompuServe screen Personal computers have started to slowly take off in North America by the end of the 1970s, a decade earlier than most other parts of the world. Connecting them to remote servers can be a nightmare of endless settings and false starts, accompanied by the squawks and squeals of an expensive, finicky modem. By 1990 more than two million North Americans will be online for discussion groups, shopping, news, chat, e-mail, and more; the early online services have been joined by AOL, Prodigy, and others.

This dial-up world pioneers much of what we do on the Web, though in a more communal setting. As networked computers arrive in offices through the 1970s and 1980s, professional information systems continue to blossom. LEXIS which has roots in the computer utilities of the 1960s provides access to legal cases. NEXIS adds a massive searchable database of news articles. DIALOG provides pricey information for businesses, and dozens of more specialized services address particular niches.

  • Microsoft's full scale entry into the browser, server, and Internet Service Provider market completed the major shift over to a commercially based Internet;
  • Tablets, smart phones, ebooks, game machines, wristwatches, GPS devices, thermostats, and even light bulbs are now capable of tapping into the web on the go, and many web pages are not designed to work on that scale;
  • Modems will be adapted to computers in 1953 for the upcoming SAGE system, and commercialized by Bell Telephone in 1958;
  • NEXIS adds a massive searchable database of news articles;
  • It gave a single place to get information about library catalogs and other telnet resources and how to use them.

Initially designed to provide more efficient use of computers and for testing, the worm has the unintended effect of invading networked computers, creating a security threat. Shoch took the term "worm" from the 1976 book The Shockwave Rider, by John Brunner, in which an omnipotent "tapeworm" program runs loose through a network of computers. Enquire Enquire screenshot In 1980 Tim Berners-Lee at the A look at the timelines of the internet from its earliest origins physics laboratory creates Enquire, a networked hypertext system used for project management but with far greater ambitions.

It seeks to categorize hyperlinks in a way that can be read by computers as well as people. He later claims he hadn't been aware of earlier hypertext work at the time, so it may be an independent reinvention. Minitel Goes Public Minitel Free!

But the business model is different. Customers pay by the minute for access to Minitel services sitescharged on their phone bills; France Telecom keeps about a third and passes on the rest to the service provider. As in the later Web, Minitel service providers run their own servers. But they also pay France Telecom a fee to connect to its network. Despite major efforts in the US, Canada, and Europe, similar videotex systems will fizzle outside France.

But that's only part of the solution — workers still need to do higher-level tasks such as sending e-mail, exchanging files, and sharing printers. In the 1990s, Internet protocols will replace them all. This content will turn out to be basically ready-made for the Web, and many publishers will simply port it over directly.

They don't agree on how. By the early 1980s, several different national and corporate protocols are competing with each other. OSI Open Systems Interconnect is the first with international backing, and support from the International Standards Organization as an official standard.

The Well attracts an eclectic mix of intellectuals, computer geeks, hippies, Grateful Dead fans, writers, entrepreneurs, and journalists. Journalists are given free memberships in the early days, leading to many articles about the community and helping it grow.

GSM standard formally agreed Nokia 1011, first common GSM phone Digital mobile networks had been pioneered by ARPA from the early 1970s for military use, but early cell phone networks for consumers are analog. They use traditional telephone circuit-switching, where there is a connection circuit between caller and recipient for the duration of the call.

The connection seamlessly switches from cell to cell as the phone moves. Development work had begun five years earlier with major input from Ericsson, Deutsche Telekom, France Telecom and a number of others. Yet after its initial invention in the 1960s, computer hypertext had gone underground for 20 years.

It got so obscure that the main father of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee, may have unknowingly re-invented it in 1980.

  1. It takes no knowledge of unix or computer architecture to use. If the most direct route was not available, routers would direct traffic around the network via alternate routes.
  2. There was more and more need for tools to index the resources that were available.
  3. The momentum for Web development shifts further West, and never returns to Europe.

But HyperCard is standalone; you can only click through to other cards on the same computer. The Morris Worm Robert T. Morris 23 year old Robert T. Morris, the son of a computer security expert for the National Security Agency, sends a nondestructive worm through the Internet causing major problems for days for about 6,000 of the 60,000 hosts linked to the network.

The result is widespread outages. This is the first worm to have a major effect on real-world computer systems, and publicizes the importance of network security.

  1. As the unmarked van drives through the San Francisco Bay Area, stuffed full of hackers and sometimes uniformed generals, it is pioneering wireless, packet-switched digital networks, including the kind your mobile phone uses today.
  2. With the slow connections of those days, it would take 20 minutes for a single page to load.
  3. After that, there were far too many to keep listing here. A longer look at communications through the ages.
  4. A longer look at communications through the ages. But instead of using pricey dedicated telegraph lines, the telex system connects those teleprinters to each other over voice telephone lines, routed by modified telephone switches.

At its official 1983 launch, the Internet had been a modest experimental network of networks owned by the U. As late as 1989, even insiders are betting against it — OSI is the official favorite for the future of internetworking, or connecting networks together.