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A geographical overview of tajikistan a land in central asia

People, Places and Globalization Search for: The books on open. All book content will remain the same, but the appearance of the books will change to a new, upgraded design. Summarize how Central Asia has been transitioning from a Soviet-dominated region to independent states and what has been occurring in the various states to adapt to the new economic environment.

Describe how the Aral Sea has been affected by the practices of water use in the region and the environmental consequences that have resulted from water use policies. Explain the geopolitical history of Afghanistan and why this area has been so difficult to govern under a central government. Learn why there is continual conflict in Afghanistan between Western military forces and local Taliban insurgents.

Understand the principle that globalization of the economy forces political units to compete over natural resources. Turkestan Central Asia is a region in the Asian continent that extends from the mountains of western China to the shores of the Caspian Sea. Pakistan and Iran create the southern border of the region, and the vast expanse of Russia is to the north.

Afghanistan is considered a part of the region even though it was never a formal part of the Soviet Union. Central Asia was located on what was known as the Silk Road between Europe and the Far East and has long been a crossroads for people, ideas, and trade.

  • The economy of Kazakhstan has been larger than the economies of all the other Central Asian states combined;
  • Oil and natural gas reserves are also available for exploitation.

Central Asia has an extremely varied geography, including high mountain passes through vast mountain ranges, such as the Tian Shan, Hindu Kush, and the Pamirs. The region is also home to the vast Kara Kum and Kyzyl Kum Deserts, which dominate the interior with extensive spans of sand and desolation. The expansive treeless, grassy steppes that surround the desert regions are considered an extension of the steppes of Eastern Europe.

Some geographers think of the Eurasian Steppes as one single, homogenous geographical zone. Under the sand and prairie grasses lay the some of the most extensive untapped reserves of gas and oil on the planet. Natural resources are the main attraction of the region driving the economic forces that determine the development patterns of individual countries.

Multinational corporations have vigorously stepped up their activity in the region. The five countries of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan were part of the former Soviet Union until its breakup in 1991.

Today, with Afghanistan, they are independent countries that make up the region called Central Asia. Central Asia is also referred to as Turkestan because of the Turkish a geographical overview of tajikistan a land in central asia in the region. The people of Turkey did not originate from the Middle East; they originated from northern Asia.

They swept through Central Asia and dominated the region on their way to the Middle East. The Turkish language and heritage have had the most significant impact on the people of Central Asia. This way of life continued until the 1920s, when the Soviet Union forced many of the groups to abandon their lifestyle and settle on collective farms and in cities. Most of the people of Central Asia continue to identify culturally with their nomadic past.

Central Asians who live in cities often demonstrate a mix of local and Russian culture in terms of dress and food because of the large influx of Russian populations in the region. Russian is often used as a lingua franca. One of the primary ways in which people distinguish themselves culturally is through religious practices.

Despite the area being part of the Soviet Union, where religious activities were discouraged, Islam was and still is the dominant religion. Most Central Asian Muslims are Sunnis. Updated from map courtesy of University of Texas Libraries. The expansion of the Russian Empire under the tsars integrated Kazakhstan and its neighbors, which eased their transition when the tsarist system of Russian government gave way to the Soviet Union.

The influx of Russian people and culture had a major influence on Kazakhstan. Updated from map courtesy of NASA — public domain.

  • A once-thriving fishing industry has been destroyed and environmental damage has been catastrophic;
  • Islam emerged in this country after Uzbekistan won its independence in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union;
  • The people of Turkey did not originate from the Middle East; they originated from northern Asia;
  • Kazakhstan is rich in oil reserves on its western border with the Caspian Sea;
  • The Tengiz basin around the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea is home to extensive petroleum reserves;
  • Uzbekistan is a country of young people:

It is the ninth-largest state on the planet in terms of square miles and is larger in physical area than of all of Western Europe. This vast land is host to a wide variety of physical landscapes, including the high, snow-capped peaks of the ranges on the Chinese border.

The western portions are lowlands bordering the Caspian Sea. The seemingly endless grasslands of the interior are one of the largest steppe regions in the world. The steppe region has a semiarid type B climate. A large portion of southern Kazakhstan is desert, including the northern regions of the Kyzyl Kum Desert. Colder type D climates are found in the northern regions of the country. The steppe produces grain in large quantities and other agricultural products, while the productive mining of minerals adds to the national wealth.

  1. The Soviets also transformed the cultural and ethnic makeup of the city by relocating tens of thousands of people from Russia and other regions of Central Asia to Dushanbe. The decline of the Aral Sea has destroyed habitats and the local economy.
  2. The two areas have a large range of percent population urban with Armenia containing 64 percent. Central Asia and the Caucasian countries could therefore be described as a region benefiting from a third wave of FDI in the post-communist zone, the first wave having been directed at Central and Eastern Europe in the early 1990s, and the second wave having been directed at South-East European countries in the early 2000s.
  3. Various species of fish were introduced and the lake became a major source for commercial fishing. The southern mountains along the Iranian and Afghan border reach as high as 10,290 feet in elevation.
  4. Kyrgyzstan is closely linked to eastern Uzbekistan.

Kazakhstan ranks high in the mining of many metals and uranium. Even diamonds are found here.

Impact of agricultural land use in Central Asia: a review

The Tengiz basin around the northeast shores of the Caspian Sea is home to extensive petroleum reserves. Oil pipelines are expanding to transport the oil to port locations and other countries, including China. The economy of Kazakhstan has been larger than the economies of all the other Central Asian states combined.

The female rider whips the male until she is caught. If the male catches the female, he is rewarded with a kiss. US Air Force — public domain. Kazakhstan also has a forward capital. During the Soviet era, the capital was located in the southeast at Almaty, but after gaining independence in 1991, the capital was a geographical overview of tajikistan a land in central asia north to Astana to ensure that the Russian-dominated northeast would be monitored against devolutionary forces that desiring to secede and become part of the Russian Republic.

Uzbekistan Uzbekistan physically borders all the Central Asian countries. It is the most populous Central Asian country, with a population that exceeds twenty-seven million. The boundary lines were created during the Soviet era to provide the central government with more control over its republics by politicizing enclaves to their benefit.

Geographers call Uzbekistan a doubly landlocked nation because all the countries that surround it are also landlocked. The main source of fresh water comes from the Eastern Highland regions. The main rivers have been heavily diverted for irrigation and are often depleted before reaching their destination at the Aral Sea. Cotton is the main agricultural crop. Uzbekistan is one of the top producers of cotton in the world and is a major exporter to world markets.

The central and western regions have mainly arid desert climates and rely heavily on the fresh water flowing in from the mountains. Agriculture employs a full one-fourth of the population and accounts for one-fourth of the gross domestic product GDP. The extraction of gold, minerals, and fossil fuels are also prime economic activities. Uzbekistan is a country of young people: Education was heavily emphasized during the Soviet era; as a result, about 99 percent of the population is literate—though about one-third of the people still live in poverty.

Islam emerged in this country after Uzbekistan won its independence in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. In a culture of openness, Islam has risen in prominence to the point that approximately 88 percent of Uzbeks profess Islamic beliefs. Tashkent has an unofficial population of more than three million people. The city, which sits on the confluence of a local river and its tributaries, started as a caravanserai, or oasis for trade, along the Silk Road.

It is one of the oldest continually inhabited cities in the world and has been one of the more important cities in Central Asia. The historical architecture is heavily influence by Islamic styles from Iran. Bukhara was another important city on the Silk Road and is known for its Asian carpet and textile industry. The sea was once the fourth-largest body of water in the world, but it has been reduced to a fraction of its original area.

Transcaucasia and Central Asia

In 1960, the Aral Sea covered about 26,254 square miles, an area larger than the size of the US state of West Virginia. By 2009, the sea covered less than 10 percent of the same area. The entire eastern portion of the sea has become a sand desert, complete with the deteriorating hulls of abandoned fishing vessels. The loss of water is approximately equivalent to the complete draining of both Lake Erie and Lake Ontario in North America. The water loss escalated when the Syr Darya River, which flowed into the northern part of the sea, and the Amu Darya River, which flowed into the southern side of the sea, were diverted for the irrigation of cotton and other crops.

Its source is the high mountain streams and lakes of the Pamir Mountains. Environmental problems were further exacerbated by the extensive use of pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural processes.

The chemicals contaminated the water flowing into the Aral Sea.

Central Asia (a.k.a. Turkestan)

Once the water dried up in the sea, the winds carried the buildup of chemicals and salt from the dry seabed over the land, causing serious health-related problems in the nearby human population.

Cancer and respiratory illness rates continue to be higher than normal. Water and land pollution is a serious problem. Even the climate around the Aral Sea has changed gradually because of the loss of water from evaporation for precipitation. The climate is getting warmer in the summer and colder in the winter.

The moderating affect that this large body of water had on its surrounding area is no longer as prominent as it once was. The decline of the Aral Sea has destroyed habitats and the local economy. The fishing industry, which employed more than sixty thousand people, has been devastated.

  1. Under Taliban rule, women were removed from positions in hospitals, schools, and work environments and had to wear burkas also spelled burqas and be covered from head to toe, including a veil over their faces.
  2. Even though Tajikistan is in the middle of the total population for the two areas, it contains the highest percentage of population under the age of 15.
  3. The steppe produces grain in large quantities and other agricultural products, while the productive mining of minerals adds to the national wealth.
  4. In the northern portion of the Aral Sea, called the Little Aral Sea, there has been some success in abating the deterioration of this once-thriving environmental habitat. The influx of Russian people and culture had a major influence on Kazakhstan.

The remaining western portion of the sea has a rising salt content that is contributing to the decline of the fish population. Adding to the environmental devastation, the Soviets conducted biological weapons experiments on an island that was once in the middle of the Aral Sea.

Hazardous wastes such as anthrax and toxic chemicals contaminated the land and found their way into the sea. Efforts have been made to marginalize the environmental damage of the contamination, but the damage has not been completely ameliorated. The sea has historically been an important environmental location for wildlife.

It is located in a major flyway for migratory waterfowl in Central Asia and served as an important habitat. In the northern portion of the Aral Sea, called the Little Aral Sea, there has been some success in abating the deterioration of this once-thriving environmental habitat. A major dam has been constructed that partitions off the Little Aral Sea, causing water from the Syr Darya River to increase the water level of the Little Aral Sea and reduce the salt content.