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A connection between the peace movement and the violence perpetrated by the counterculture in americ

Attitudes toward sexuality appeared to loosen, and women began to openly protest the traditional roles of housewife and mother that society had assigned to them.

Leaders of the SDS believed that colleges were a natural base from which to promote social change. Before opposition to the Vietnam War mushroomed, issues that touched on student freedom, such as dress codes, course requirements, discrimination by sororities and fraternities, and minority admissions, were hot topics on campus.

When the administration tried to control political activity at the University of California at Berkeley in the fall of 1964, the Free Speech Movement was formed. In the spring of 1965, SDS supported a nationwide campaign against the draft.

The Counterculture of the 1960s

Additionally, companies that were closely involved with the war effort, such as Dow Chemical which manufactured napalmwere targeted when they came to a university to recruit. In the first six months of 1968, more than 200 major demonstrations took place at 100 colleges and universities across the country, involving more than 40,000 students. The most celebrated of these early demonstrations was the confrontation at Columbia University in April 1968.

The issue being protested was not the war, but the school's decision to displace black housing to build a gymnasium.

The local SDS chapter, along with black students, commandeered several buildings on campus for almost a week.

When the police were called in, 700 students were arrested and 150 injured as the buildings were cleared out. The occupation received national and international news coverage, Columbia's president resigned, and the plans for the gymnasium were dropped.

The organization soon splintered, with its more radical elements, such as the Weathermen, openly espousing confrontational politics. The sex and drug culture were reflected in the rock music of the time by such groups as Jefferson Airplane and the Grateful Dead and performers like Jim Morrison and Janis Joplin. Although some young people established communes in the countryside, hippies were primarily an urban phenomenon. A Rolling Stones concert at the Altamont Speedway in California a few months later did not go as well.

With the police unable to provide adequate security because they did not have enough notice of the event, Hell's Angels were hired for crowd control.

  1. Protest music, typified by Joan Baez and Bob Dylan, contributed to the gulf between young and old. During the Johnson administration, it played a significant role in constraining the war and was a major factor in the administration's policy reversal in 1968.
  2. The organization soon splintered, with its more radical elements, such as the Weathermen, openly espousing confrontational politics.
  3. The occupation received national and international news coverage, Columbia's president resigned, and the plans for the gymnasium were dropped. The brutal clashes between police and peace activists at the August Democratic National Convention in Chicago typified the divided nature of American society and foreshadowed a continuing rise in domestic conflict.
  4. Perhaps the most significant development of the period between 1965 and 1968 was the emergence of Civil Rights leaders as active proponents of peace in Vietnam.

The bikers beat one person to death, and several more deaths resulted from accidents and drug overdoses. While the general permissiveness of the counterculture encouraged sexual freedom, other factors also contributed to the change in attitudes toward sexuality.

Many states had already legalized abortion, and the new women's movement was committed to making the procedure even more widely available. The starting point for contemporary feminism was the 1963 publication of Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, which argued that women should be allowed to find their own identity, an identity not necessarily limited to the traditional roles of wife and mother. The number of women attending college skyrocketed during the 1960s, and many became involved with both the New Left and the civil rights movement.

Even these organizations remained dominated by men, however. During the takeover at Columbia University, for instance, women were assigned duties such as making coffee and typing.

  1. During the takeover at Columbia University, for instance, women were assigned duties such as making coffee and typing. In March, SDS escalated the scale of dissent to a truly national level, calling for a march on Washington to protest the bombing.
  2. Although some young people established communes in the countryside, hippies were primarily an urban phenomenon.
  3. Encouraged by the movement, Senator Eugene McCarthy announced in late 1967 that he was challenging Johnson in the 1968 Democratic primaries; his later strong showing in New Hampshire was seen as a major defeat for Johnson and a repudiation of his war policies. Many also had sons, daughters, or wives who opposed the war, fueling the sense of besiegement.
  4. In the spring of 1965, "teach-ins" against the war were held on many college campuses. The movement regained solidarity following several disturbing incidents.
  5. That catalyst appeared early in February, when the U.

Consequently, although the political activism of the 1960s was a catalyst for women's liberation, feminism became most effective when it created its own groups. Women, however, were not the only group that began to demand equality in the 1960s. Laws against homosexuals were common, and groups like the Mattachine Society and the Daughters of Bilitis had campaigned for years with little effect against gay discrimination.

The treatment of homosexuals and lesbians gradually became a national civil rights issue.