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A chinese garden a physical arrangement of rocks plants and water

History[ edit ] The tea garden in 1904 After the conclusion of the 1894 World's FairMakoto Hagiwaraa Japanese immigrant and gardener, personally oversaw the modification of the temporary Japanese Village fair exhibit to the permanent Japanese Tea Garden and was official caretaker of the garden from 1895 to 1925.

He imported from Japan many plants, birds, and the now famous koi fish, and he more than tripled the size of the garden. After San Francisco's 1915 Panama-Pacific International Exposition closed, he obtained the large ornamental wooden gate from that fair's Japanese Pavilion.

Following Makoto Hagiwara's death in 1925 his daughter, Takano Hagiwara, and her children became the proprietors and maintainers of the garden. With the onset of World War II in America and rising anti Japanese sentiment, Takano Hagiwara was evicted from the family's home and sentenced to an internment camp. Despite John McLaren's agreement with Hagiwara, the displacement of his family disrupted their stay at a promised century long home and the family was not allowed back or reimbursed after the war ended.

Japanese tea servers were replaced with Chinese women in their traditional dress. The period that followed was one of reconciliation. In 1949, a bronze Buddha was donated by the Gump family. The lantern was commissioned in small donations by the children of Japan as a symbol of friendship toward future generations in the United States. At this time, Nagao Sakurai designed a "Peace Garden" and a karesansui or dry landscape garden. Karesansui are commonly referred to as Zen Gardens outside of Japan, but that name was assigned by those foreign to Japan.

In 1974, a plaque contrived by artist, Ruth Asawa was gifted to the garden in honor of Makoto Hagiwara and his family for their dedication to the garden's beginnings and expansion. The origin of the tea ceremony dates back to 1203 AD, "with Buddhist priests of the Zen sect, who found the infusion [tea] useful in keeping them awake during midnight devotions.

Elements of the Chinese Garden

When the "ceremony is well executed, an unspoken and perhaps inexpressible Zen quality lingers in the air. Overtime, the tea house became "the transcendent viewing place for contemplating the landscape" in a traditional tea garden. The Tea House currently offers six kinds of tea: It also offers a variety of snacks, some of which are savory including Edamame and Tea Sandwiches, and some of which are sweet including Kuzumochi and Green Tea Cheesecake.

The pagoda in this garden is the later. The pagoda in the garden was moved from its original spot about sixty feet West to where the Shinto shrine originally stood. Due to local anti-Japanese sentiment during WWII which led to the relocation of Japanese Americans, the Shinto shine was demolished and the Buddhist pagoda replaced the open space. It is thus named because when reflected on the water, the full circle shape it creates resembles a drum.

This design is also referred to as a Moon bridge. Today a bronze plaque at the bridge "recognizes the dedication and expertise of Shinshichi Nakatani for his unique contribution to the City and to the charm of the Japanese Tea Garden.

Some of the techniques followed consist of most, if not all of the following: During the fall season, [14] it uses completely uniform straight lines, which is meant to represent waves in an ocean. Physical design elements[ edit ] Trees[ edit ] The trees of the Japanese Tea Garden have more than a century-long history. The garden consists of a variety of trees, including flowering cherry trees, azaleas, magnolias, camellias, Japanese maples, pines, cedars and cypresses.

These trees were then sold to Dr. Samuel Newsom, an expert on Japanese Gardens and Japanese trees, redesigned the dwarf trees in 1965 after the dwarf trees returned to the garden. Most of these dwarf trees originated in Japan, brought over by the Hagiwara family.

A chinese garden a physical arrangement of rocks plants and water

The oldest tree was a Japanese black pine, which is now on a bamboo frame next to the Tea House. Every three years, the pines are layered into zig-zagged planes, creating an artistic design favored in traditional Japanese landscapes.

These pines average sixty feet tall, so city arborists use ropes to climb to the tops and take great care pruning each tree. Ponds and waterfalls are often placed with precise orientations with respect to the sun to determine the reflection.

They are generally thought of as the backbone of the arrangement of the space and as "dwelling places of gods, tokens of regal power, and symbols of longevity. In Japanese Gardens, rocks are often clustered with one large rock as the base stone.

  • Visitors should be able to explore the garden on their own, and they should feel physically and psychologically comfortable while in the garden;
  • These areas are cleared spaces along the path that can accommodate the instructor and about 5 to 10 standing people.

Others are arranged around it so they agree with the mood or order set forth by the base. Those groups of rocks often appear to have order and flow while remaining asymmetrical. They point viewers toward the focal point of the design of the garden. Paths and stepping-stones are formed in irregular patterns so people slow down and notice the design around them.

A tall stone standing erect of the ground, for example, is associated to masculinity, while a low flat stone represents femininity, mirroring Shinto belief that all things in nature contain gender equilibrium. Cultural and religious design[ edit ] As a place of sacred ritual, a Japanese tea garden is highly representative of both Japanese culture and religious philosophy through the respected art forms of landscaping and architecture. Japanese aesthetics have been largely influenced by the a chinese garden a physical arrangement of rocks plants and water location of Japan, with emphases on isolation and the importance of water.

Japanese cultural aesthetics[ edit ] The design of a Japanese tea garden is largely influenced by four main aesthetic principles in Japanese culture: It also encompasses the use of small stones and other small elements to represent the yin-yang.

The Buddhist value of yin-yang expresses the incomplete and dynamic nature of everything around us. The yin-yang symbolizes multiple parts that come together to create a larger whole, and that nothing on its own is entirely whole or static.

For example, the dragon hedge of the Japanese Tea Garden only reveals itself as a dragon after being followed from tail to head. Although the Japanese Tea Garden is located in the city of San Francisco, one cannot tell the garden is surrounded by an urban scene when inside. It is encompassed in tall greenery that visually extend the size of the garden. Asymmetry stresses the abstract and ever-changing nature of everything around us.

This principle is shown in the garden through the winding pathways, stones of many different sizes, and abstract placements of objects.

Additionally, the changing of the waves in the dry Zen Garden is a tradition that honors wabi-sabi. The most prominent of these being the ancient Japanese religion of Shintoism. The significance of various elements in the garden can be attributed to the fundamental principles and characteristics of Shintoism, Buddhismand even Taoism. All of these religions have a large emphasis on the importance of nature, and the importance of being one with nature.

The placement of rocks, the way the water flows, the route of the paths, the placement of the trees, everything has to be done in such a way that promotes a natural flow, as emphasized in Taoism. In Shintoism, it is believed that the spirits of ancestors, and spirits of the gods themselves, are manifested in nature. These spirits are called Kamiand these Kami are what determine the fortune of those living on Earth.

The garden is designed so as to promote the happiness of these spirits, and to properly coexist with them. Cleanliness is also greatly emphasized in Shintoism, which can also be noticed in the structure of the park, the park is not meant to appear crowded or difficult to navigate. In addition, the waterfall found in the garden is symbolic to the fact that cleansing of bad spirits by waterfall is considered the purest way to cleanse oneself in Shintoism.

Though the design is meant to convey many different elements of nature, flow, and Zen, all fundamentals in Buddhism, it is done simply. Steep stairs[ edit ] Many aesthetic elements of the garden catch the attention of tourists and can be traced back to Buddhist philosophy. It is believed in Buddhism that Zen can be reached through stair climbing, as movement is often incorporated into meditation.

Many monks and nuns include exercise in their daily routines. It is also believed that Buddha himself said, "Good health is the highest gain.

The climb is now made of 1500 steps up a steep hill. The bases of the lanterns symbolize the earth, while the next section is water, the light is fire, and the following two sections symbolize the air and spirit respectively. The lanterns as a whole symbolize the coming together of all five elements in the harmony of nature, another example of wabi-sabi.