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A brief history of the atomic theory

Of course, if I were to get called to preach somewhere this Sunday, I would have to figure out a way to condense this. Should people in the pews have some understanding of the basic principles of physics, chemistry, and biology?

Should a pastor or a lay speaker focus on scientific theory when speaking of the Gospel or other passages in the Scriptures?

History of Atomic Theory Chemistry Tutorial

One would think that the answer to the first question should be yes, if for no other reason than such information is covered in basic courses taught in high school and college. You know that there is a problem when many people still hold onto the Aristotelian view point that heavier things fall faster than light while they were taught in school that all things fall at the same rate.

And the same applies to church as well; it is well documented that the majority of Americans claim to be Christian but cannot provide basic information about the Bible, Christianity or their denomination. Clearly, there is a need to reform our educational processes, both in the sectarian schools and in the secular schools as well.

And that is one issue that I want to address. But in the meantime, let me offer these thoughts on atomic theory. To understand the history of atomic theory, you a brief history of the atomic theory a basic understanding of the processes of science. Generally speaking, we break down matter from heterogeneous mixtures into homogeneous mixtures or solutions and then into compounds and elements.

The separation of mixtures is done mainly through physical changes and processes. The separation of compounds into elements is done through chemical changes and processes. Elements are the simple form of matter and atoms are the simplest form of an element.

But Issac Newton would find references to these works and use them developing his ideas on optics. In the preparation of these notes, I found a reference that said that Newton believed the idea of atoms was first developed by a person known as Moschus or Moses of Sidon; Newton believed this to be the biblical Moses — references: Dalton would codify his thoughts in what we called the first modern atomic theory.

All matter consists of tiny particles called atoms that are indestructible and unchangeable. Elements are characterized by the mass of their atoms.

When elements react, their atoms combine in simple whole-number ratios; though sometimes there may be more than one possible ratio.

Dalton also included a postulate that when atoms combine in only one ratio, it is a binary one, unless some cause appears to the contrary. Now, Dalton had no experimental evidence to support this postulate and it led him to assume that the formula for water was OH and the formula for ammonia was NH.

General Chemistry/Atomic Structure/History of Atomic Structure

This in turn lead him to incorrectly determine the mass of oxygen and nitrogen. These incorrect values would lead to conclusions that were not supported by the experimental data and would prevent many from accepting his theory.

A Brief History Of Atomic Theory [Infographic]

A Short History of Chemistry, J. Partington, MacMillan London1937 In the end, his basic statements about the nature of the atom, though modified, are still true today. Now, if science is absolute, which some people believe to be the case, then the activities of the18th and 19th century will cause them grief.

  1. Most of the alpha particles passed straight through, as expected.
  2. A side note — in 1948 George Gamow would suggest to Robert Alpher that Hans Bethe be added as a co-author for their paper on the synthesis of the elements that they Gamow and Alpher had been preparing for publication.
  3. He began to regularly "linewrap" the elements onto the next line, and create what is now called the periodic table of the elements. Bohr theorized that these integers represent "shells" or "orbits" in which electrons travel around the nucleus, each with a certain energy level.
  4. He began to regularly "linewrap" the elements onto the next line, and create what is now called the periodic table of the elements.

In addition, if one is not able to see the connection between two sets of data, it is also possible that what happened in the 18th and 19th century will also cause them grief. It may be true today that what transpires in chemistry today often times has little impact on what is happening in physics or biology.

And it also may be true that there are many chemists, physicists, and biologists who have no interest in what transpires in the other fields. And we certainly teach these subjects as if they were independent of each other.

  1. Atoms cannot be created, divided into smaller particles, nor destroyed in the chemical process; a chemical reaction simply changes the way atoms are grouped together.
  2. And the same applies to church as well; it is well documented that the majority of Americans claim to be Christian but cannot provide basic information about the Bible, Christianity or their denomination. The oil droplets were in between a positively charged plate and a negatively charged plate which, when proper electric voltage was applied, caused the oil droplet to remain still.
  3. Partington, MacMillan London , 1937 In the end, his basic statements about the nature of the atom, though modified, are still true today.
  4. Their indestructibility provided a retort to Zeno, and the void allowed him to account for plurality, change, and movement. Partington, MacMillan London , 1937 In the end, his basic statements about the nature of the atom, though modified, are still true today.
  5. All other properties, he argued, could be explained in terms of the three primary properties.

But that was certainly not the case in the 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries. The discovery of electricity would lead to the discovery of the electron and suggest that the atom was, in point of fact, divisible. And because the electron carried a negative charge although this was an arbitrary decisionit implied the existence of a second charged particle which was ultimately called the proton.

A Brief History of Atomic Theory

The discovery of radioactivity also brought into doubt the stability of the atom. In 1896 Henri Becquerel, Pierre and Marie Curie would identify and characterize what we call radioactivity the three would share the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics. The names of these rays were chosen in order of their discovery.

Later experiments would show that these were not alpha and beta rays but particles. A side note — in 1948 George Gamow would suggest to Robert Alpher that Hans Bethe be added as a co-author for their paper on the synthesis of the elements that they Gamow and Alpher had been preparing for publication.

This paper Alpher, R. This discovery would also lead to the discovery of isotopes, atoms of the same element but with different masses.

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Isotopes are atoms of the same element with different masses. This discovery meant that further study of the atom was necessary. In addition, the idea that some nuclei of atoms the nucleus was first identified by Rutherford while working on and with alpha and beta particles were unstable lead to experiments which resulted in the splitting of the atom nuclear fission, first proposed by Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard in 1993 and confirmed by Lise Meitner, Otto Frisch, Otto Hahn, and Fritz Strassman in 1939.

These terms can and are equally applicable to other materials such as plastics. Further work has shown that protons, neutrons, and electrons can be further subdivided.

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Each step in this process is increasingly more complex. But complexity does not preclude solvability and the work goes on. At this point, one can see that the postulates first proposed by Dalton are no longer valid as written.

The idea that the atom is indivisible has been replaced with the notion that there are some other basic particles which cannot be divided.

And physicists are working on that idea as this piece is being written. Perhaps one day there will be an ultimate atomic theory — that is what Democritus was seeking and what Dalton was seeking and what drives the exploration of the world of sub-atomic particles today.