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A biography of sir winston churchill a citizen of the world

See Article History Alternative Title: After a sensational rise to prominence in national politics before World War I, Churchill acquired a reputation for erratic judgment in the war itself and in the decade that followed.

A biography of sir winston churchill a citizen of the world

He led the Conservative Party back to office in 1951 and remained prime minister until 1955, when ill health forced his resignation. Through his father, Lord Randolph Churchillthe meteoric Tory politician, he was directly descended from John Churchill, 1st duke of Marlboroughthe hero of the wars against Louis XIV of France in the early 18th century. His mother, Jennie Jeromea noted beauty, was the daughter of a New York financier and horse racing enthusiast, Leonard W.

The young Churchill passed an unhappy and sadly neglected childhood, redeemed only by the affection of Mrs. Everest, his devoted nurse. It was only at the third attempt that he managed to pass the entrance examination to the Royal Military College, now Academy, Sandhurst, but, once there, he applied himself seriously and passed out graduated 20th in a class of 130.

Initially the only prospect of action was in Cuba, where he spent a couple of months of leave reporting the Cuban war of independence from Spain for the Daily Graphic London. In 1896 his regiment went to India, where he saw service as both soldier and journalist on the North-West Frontier 1897. Expanded as The Story of the Malakand Field Force 1898his dispatches attracted such wide attention as to launch him on the career of authorship that he intermittently pursued throughout his life.

The River War 1899 brilliantly describes the campaign. He first stood as a Conservative at Oldham, where he lost a by-election by a narrow margin, but found quick solace in reporting the South African War for The Morning Post London.

Within a month after his arrival in A biography of sir winston churchill a citizen of the world Africa he had won fame for his part in rescuing an armoured train ambushed by Boers, though at the price of himself being taken prisoner. But this fame was redoubled when less than a month later he escaped from military prison. Returning to Britain a military hero, he laid siege again to Oldham in the election of 1900.

Churchill succeeded in winning by a margin as narrow as that of his previous failure. A self-assurance redeemed from arrogance only by a kind of boyish charm made Churchill from the first a notable House of Commons figure, but a speech defect, which he never wholly lost, combined with a certain psychological inhibition to prevent him from immediately becoming a master of debate.

Churchill, a convinced free traderhelped to found the Free Food League. He was disavowed by his constituents and became increasingly alienated from his party.

In 1904 he joined the Liberals and won renown for the audacity of his attacks on Chamberlain and Balfour. The radical elements in his political makeup came to the surface under the influence of two colleagues in particular, John Morley, a political legatee of W.

Gladstone, and David Lloyd Georgethe rising Welsh orator and firebrand. In the ensuing general election in 1906 he secured a notable victory in Manchester and began his ministerial career in the new Liberal government as undersecretary of state for the colonies. He soon gained credit for his able defense of the policy of conciliation and self-government in South Africa.

When the ministry was reconstructed under Prime Minister Herbert H. Asquith in 1908, Churchill was promoted to president of the Board of Trade, with a seat in the cabinet. Defeated at the ensuing by-election in Manchesterhe won an election at Dundee. In the same year he married the beautiful Clementine Hozier; it was a marriage of unbroken affection that provided a secure and happy background for his turbulent career.

At the Board of Trade, Churchill emerged as a leader in the movement of Liberalism away from laissez-faire toward social reform. He completed the work begun by his predecessor, Lloyd George, on the bill imposing an eight-hour maximum day for miners. In the cabinet his reward was promotion to the office of home secretary.

Here, despite substantial achievements in prison reform, he had to devote himself principally to coping with a sweeping wave of industrial unrest and violent strikes. Upon occasion his relish for dramatic action led him beyond the limits of his proper role as the guarantor of public order. For this he paid a heavy price in incurring the long-standing suspicion of organized labour. When transferred to the Admiralty in October 1911, he went to work with a conviction of the need to bring the navy to a pitch of instant readiness.

His first task was the creation of a naval war staff. Despite his inherited Tory views on Ireland, he wholeheartedly embraced the Liberal policy of Home Rulemoving the second reading of the Irish Home Rule Bill of 1912 and campaigning for it in the teeth of Unionist opposition.

Although, through his friendship with F. Smith later 1st earl of Birkenhead and Austen Chamberlain, he did much to arrange the compromise by which Ulster was to be excluded from the immediate effect of the bill, no member of the government was more bitterly abused—by Tories as a renegade and by extreme Home Rulers as a defector. He had already held a test naval mobilization.

Of all the cabinet ministers he was the most insistent on the need to resist Germany. On August 2, 1914, on his own responsibility, he ordered the naval mobilization that guaranteed complete readiness when war was declared. In October 1914, when Antwerp was falling, he characteristically rushed in person to organize its defense. When it fell the public saw only a disillusioning defeat, but in fact the prolongation of its resistance for almost a biography of sir winston churchill a citizen of the world week enabled the Belgian Army to escape and the crucial Channel ports to be saved.

Sir John Fisher, the first sea lord, was productive both of dynamism and of dissension. The campaign aimed at forcing the straits and opening up direct communications with Russia.

When the naval attack failed and was called off on the spot by Adm. Churchill came under heavy political attack, which intensified when Fisher resigned. Preoccupied with departmental affairs, Churchill was quite unprepared for the storm that broke about his ears.

He had no part at all in the maneuvers that produced the first coalition government and was powerless when the Conservativeswith the sole exception of Sir William Maxwell Aitken soon Lord Beaverbrookinsisted on his being demoted from the Admiralty to the duchy of Lancaster. There he was given special responsibility for the Gallipoli Campaign a land assault at the straits without, however, any powers of direction.

Reinforcements were too few and too late; the campaign failed and casualties were heavy; evacuation was ordered in the autumn. In November 1915 Churchill resigned from the government and returned to soldiering, seeing active service in France as lieutenant colonel of the 6th Royal Scots Fusiliers. In June 1916, when his battalion was merged, he did not seek another command but instead returned to Parliament as a private member.

He was not involved in the intrigues that led to the formation of a coalition government under Lloyd George, and it was not until 1917 that the Conservatives would consider his inclusion in the government. In March 1917 the publication of the Dardanelles commission report demonstrated that he was at least no more to blame for the fiasco than his colleagues.

Political career before 1939

Paradoxically, it was not until the war was over that Churchill returned to a service department. In January 1919 he became secretary of war. As such he presided with surprising zeal over the cutting of military expenditure. The major preoccupation of his tenure in the War Office was, however, the Allied intervention in Russia.

Churchill, passionately anti-Bolshevik, secured from a divided and loosely organized cabinet an intensification and prolongation of the British involvement beyond the wishes of any major group in Parliament or the nation—and in the face of the bitter hostility of labour.

Winston Churchill

And in 1920, after the last British forces had been withdrawn, Churchill was instrumental in having arms sent to the Poles when they invaded the Ukraine. In 1921 Churchill moved to the Colonial Office, where his principal concern was with the mandated territories in the Middle East.

For the costly British forces in the area he substituted a reliance on the air force and the establishment of rulers congenial to British interests; for this settlement of Arab affairs he relied heavily on the advice of T. For Palestinewhere he inherited conflicting pledges to Jews and Arabs, he produced in 1922 the White Paper that confirmed Palestine as a Jewish national home while recognizing continuing Arab rights.

Churchill never had departmental responsibility for Ireland, but he progressed from an initial belief in firm, even ruthless, maintenance of British rule to an active role in the negotiations that led to the Irish treaty of 1921. Subsequently, he gave full support to the new Irish government. Churchill was foremost in urging a firm stand against them, but the handling of the issue by the cabinet gave the public impression that a major war was being risked for an inadequate cause and on insufficient consideration.

A political debacle ensued that brought the shaky coalition government down in ruins, with Churchill as one of the worst casualties. Gripped by a sudden attack of appendicitis, he was not able to appear in public until two days before the election, and then only in a wheelchair.

He was defeated humiliatingly by more than 10,000 votes. When he returned to politics it was as a crusading anti-Socialist, but in 1923, when Stanley Baldwin was leading the Conservatives on a protectionist program, Churchill stood, at Leicesteras a Liberal free trader.

  1. After the Allied defeat and the evacuation of the battered British forces from Dunkirk, Churchill warned Parliament that invasion was a real risk to be met with total and confident defiance. On April 9, 1963, he was accorded the unique distinction of having an honorary U.
  2. The young Churchill passed an unhappy and sadly neglected childhood, redeemed only by the affection of Mrs.
  3. He abstained from the extravagances of 1945 and campaigned with his party rather than above it. Mini-biography on the life of winston churchill he organized a massive world war a new find offers a rare glimpse into the literary mind of winston churchill.

He lost by approximately 4,000 votes. Although opposed by an official Conservative candidate—who defeated him by a hairbreadth of 43 votes—Churchill managed to avoid alienating the Conservative leadership and indeed won conspicuous support from many prominent figures in the party. Surprised, Churchill accepted; dumbfounded, the country interpreted it as a move to absorb into the party all the right-of-centre elements of the former coalition.

He had no natural gift for financial administration, and though the noted economist John Maynard Keynes criticized him unsparingly, most of the advice he received was orthodox and harmful.

Churchill offered no remedy except the cultivation of strict economy, extending even to the armed services. Churchill viewed the general strike as a quasi-revolutionary measure and was foremost in resisting a negotiated settlement.

He leaped at the opportunity of editing the British Gazette, an emergency official newspaper, which he filled with bombastic and frequently inflammatory propaganda. The next year an open rift developed between the two men. Exclusion from office, 1929—39 Thus, when in 1931 the National Government was formed, Churchill, though a supporter, had no hand in its establishment or place in its councils.

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He had arrived at a point where, for all his abilities, he was distrusted by every party. He was thought to lack judgment and stability and was regarded as a guerrilla fighter impatient of discipline. He was considered a clever man who associated too much with clever men—Birkenhead, Beaverbrook, Lloyd George—and who despised the necessary humdrum associations and compromises of practical politics. In this situation he found relief, as well as profit, in his pen, writing, in Marlborough: His Life and Timesa massive rehabilitation of his ancestor against the criticisms of the 19th-century historian Thomas Babington Macaulay.

Early Life

Before a supine government and a doubting opposition, Churchill persistently argued the case for taking the German threat seriously and for the need to prevent the Luftwaffe from securing parity with the Royal Air Force. In this he was supported by a small but devoted personal following, in particular the gifted, curmudgeonly Oxford physics professor Frederick A. Lindemann later Lord Cherwellwho enabled him to build up at Chartwell a private intelligence centre the information of which was often superior to that of the government.

When Baldwin became prime minister in 1935, he persisted in excluding Churchill from office but gave him the exceptional privilege of membership in the secret committee on air-defense research, thus enabling him to work on some vital national problems. The crisis that developed when Italy invaded Ethiopia in 1935 found Churchill ill prepared, divided between a desire to build up the League of Nations around the concept of collective security and the fear that collective action would drive Benito Mussolini into the arms of Hitler.

The Spanish Civil War 1936—39 found him convinced of the virtues of nonintervention, first as a supporter and later as a critic of Francisco Franco. Such vagaries of judgment in fact reflected the overwhelming priority he accorded to one issue—the containment of German aggressiveness. When Neville Chamberlain succeeded Baldwin, the gulf between the Cassandra-like Churchill and the Conservative leaders widened. Yet his handful of followers remained small; politically, Chamberlain felt secure in ignoring them.

As German pressure mounted on CzechoslovakiaChurchill without success urged the government to effect a joint declaration of purpose by Great Britain, France, and the Soviet Union. As long as peace lasted, Chamberlain ignored all such persuasions.

The signal went out to the fleet: