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A biography of niccolo machiavelli an italian philosopher

  • But the few favours that the Medici had doled out to him caused the supporters of the free republic to look upon him with suspicion;
  • Machiavelli cannot simply dismiss or replace the traditional notion of moral virtue, which gets its strength from the religious beliefs of ordinary people.

His parents, Bernardo and Bartolomea, had three other children, two daughters and a son. Bernardo was a lawyer and small landowner with a small salary. Machiavelli's education started at age seven. Some accounts say that Machiavelli spent the years from 1487 to 1495 working for a Florentine banker.

A love of books was a family value that Machiavelli shared.

  • Machiavelli criticized both the Medici regime and the succeeding republic he had served and boldly advised the pope to restore the republic, replacing the unstable mixture of republic and principality then prevailing;
  • The dialogue was later praised by the Prussian war theorist Carl von Clausewitz 1780—1831 and has achieved a prominent place in the history of writings on war;
  • Earlier political writers had treated politics as a branch of morals;
  • Bernardo was a lawyer and small landowner with a small salary;
  • One such scholar, for example, was the Italian philosopher Giovanni Botero 1540—1617 , who was among the first to establish the idea of a moral exemption for the state.

His writings prove that he tirelessly read the classics. In 1498 Machiavelli was named chancellor secretary to a nobleman, prince, or king and secretary of the second chancellery chief executive officer of the Florentine Republic government in Florence whose leaders were voted for by citizens.

His duties consisted chiefly of carrying out the policy decisions of others, writing diplomatic letters, reading and writing reports, and taking notes; he also went on some twenty-three diplomatic missions formal visits by a representative of a nation to foreign countries to conduct discussions on international affairs to foreign states.

These included four trips to France and two to the court of Rome. In 1502 Machiavelli married Marietta Corsini, who bore him four sons and two daughters.

  1. I liked your information. Medici was an Italian merchant prince who, without an official title, led the Florence government until his son took over.
  2. He suggested that the Church might have been destroyed by its own corruption deception and lies had not St.
  3. But Machiavelli leaves it unclear whether he prefers atheism, paganism, or a reformed Christianity, writing later, in a letter dated April 16, 1527 only two months before his death. The apparent solution to the problem is to let bad men gain glory through actions that have a good outcome, if not a good motive.
  4. Though he was unappreciated in his time and times thereafter, Machiavelli's influence lives on in the thinking of people worldwide. Jessica Feb 25, 2009 11.

His grandson, Giovanni Ricci, is credited with saving many of Machiavelli's letters and writings. In 1510 Machiavelli, inspired by his Roman history, was active in organizing a citizen militia a body of citizens, who are not soldiers by career, called to duty in a national emergency of the Florentine Republic. On November 7 Machiavelli was dismissed from his role as chancellor. Soon afterward he was arrested, imprisoned, and subjected to torture as a suspected schemer one who plots or plans against the Medici family.

Though innocent, he remained a suspect for years to come. Unable to secure an appointment from the reinstated reestablished Medici, he turned to writing. The Prince Machiavelli had a passion for ancient history. He had a fierce desire to rebuild the government with a stronger political and moral foundation, similar to that of the Roman Republic 107—101 B.

He felt the biggest need of his day was a strong political and military leader who could bring together northern Italy, ridding it of French and Spanish influence.

Niccolò Machiavelli

At the time that he wrote The Prince he pictured such a possibility while the restored Medici ruled both Florence and the papacy system of government of the Roman Catholic Church of which the pope is the head. This hope is played out in the final chapter of The Prince. It is a heartfelt plea to his Medici patrons people who support a specific cause, a person, or an establishment to set Italy free from the "barbarians. The chapters of The Prince are written in a clear and straightforward style.

Earlier political writers had treated politics as a branch of morals. Machiavelli broke with this long tradition and treated politics on its own. Machiavellian politics described the world as it was, rather than what people imagined or were taught to believe.

This was a big change in tradition. Abandoning the Christian view of history as guided by God, Machiavelli viewed events in purely human terms. Often it is fortune that gives—or takes away—the political leader's opportunity for significant important and meaningful action. Like others in the Renaissance, Machiavelli believed that man had the ability to control his own fate.

Early life and political career

This was the opposite of the Middle Ages' period in Western European history that started with the end of the Roman empire and continued to the fifteenth century concept of an all-powerful divine will a higher soul or spirit that controls the destinies and actions of all or the ancient Greeks' crushing fate inescapable downfall.

Serious critics of Machiavelli sometimes forget that he attempted to describe rather than to invent the rules of political success. For him the state was greater than its citizens and their individual interests; its health consisted in unity, but even at its height its lifetime was expected to end at some point. He suggested that the Church might have been destroyed by its own corruption deception and lies had not St.

However, Machiavelli gives a good comparison between the pagan religion of many gods religion of ancient Rome and the Christian religion.

NiccolÒ Machiavelli Biography

As a historian, Machiavelli in his History of Florence did better than earlier historians, because he focused on the underlying causes rather than the chain of events in the history of the Florentines from the death of Lorenzo de' Medici 1442—1492 in 1492. Medici was an Italian merchant prince who, without an official title, led the Florence government until his son took over.

Machiavelli stuck closely to his motto that a servant of government must be loyal and self-sacrificing. Nowhere did he suggest that the political morality sense of right and wrong of princes is a model for day-to-day dealings between ordinary citizens. His reputation as being evil and disloyal is largely undeserved; it began not long after his death. His works were banned in the first printed Index 1559. In Elizabethan England England during Queen Elizabeth's reign, 1558—1603Machiavelli was represented on the stage and in literature as evil.

The primary source of this misrepresentation incorrect presentation was the translation into A biography of niccolo machiavelli an italian philosopher by Simon Patericke in 1577 of a work popularly called Contre-Machiavel, which misrepresented Machiavelli and blamed his teachings for the St. Bartholomew Night massacre of 1572 a night chosen by the Queen of Florence to rid the city of all non-Catholics. A poem by Gabriel Harvey the following year falsely blamed Machiavelli for four principal crimes: Machiavellian enemies followed in works by other playwrights writers of plays.

Machiavelli's values are represented in nineteenth-century liberalism political philosophy based on belief in progress, the goodness of man, and individual freedom. Both Machiavelli and liberalism support government over religious power, the recruitment the act of bringing together of citizen armies, the preference for a government with voting citizens and elected officials rather than a king or queen, and the ideals of honesty, work and society's responsibility overriding the lone citizen's.

Though he was unappreciated in his time and times thereafter, Machiavelli's influence lives on in the thinking of people worldwide. He died in Florence in June 1527, receiving the last rites of the Church that he had bitterly criticized. For More Information Godman, Peter.

  1. Yet, since republics become corrupt when the people lose the fear that compels them to obey, the people must be led back to their original virtue by sensational executions reminding them of punishment and reviving their fear.
  2. To reform a corrupt state presupposes a good man, but to become a prince presupposes a bad man.
  3. Denied the post, he fell ill and died within a month. How so young a man could be entrusted with so high an office remains a mystery, particularly because Machiavelli apparently never served an apprenticeship in the chancery.
  4. In 1498 Machiavelli was named chancellor secretary to a nobleman, prince, or king and secretary of the second chancellery chief executive officer of the Florentine Republic government in Florence whose leaders were voted for by citizens. Some people think it was in May.
  5. The new prince relies on his own virtue , but, if virtue is to enable him to acquire a state, it must have a new meaning distinct from the New Testament virtue of seeking peace. He learned Latin well and probably knew some Greek, and he seems to have acquired the typical humanist education that was expected of officials of the Florentine Chancery.

From Poliziano to Machiavelli. Princeton University Press, 1998. A Biography of Macchiavelli.

Edited by Antony Shugaar. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2000. Jessica Feb 25, 2009 11: Some people think it was in May. I liked your information.