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Understanding fascism and the hatred against the jewish people

Understanding Fascism and anti-Semitism by - October 23, 2003 Fascism is recognized to have first been officially developed by Benito Mussolini, who came to power in Italy in 1922. To sum up fascism in one word would be to say "anti-liberalism". Fascism is much more than that however, but understanding fascism is in fact one of the most important elements in understanding the 20th century and our modern world.

In 1932 Mussolini declared that the 20th century would be the "Fascist century" by stating: Political doctrines pass; peoples remain. It is to be expected that this century may be that of authority, a century of the "Right," a Fascist century. What, then, is fascism exactly?

In order to understand fascism it is first important to understand the climate of the early 20th century in which fascism took shape.

  • From Mussolini's 1935 essay;
  • In his 1935 essay on fascism, Fascism:

Fascism was born out of the ruins of World War I, in which Mussolini served. Fascism was immediately reactionary to its surroundings in Europe, which was dominated by the two established powers of Britain and France. Britain and France were seen as economically dominant but decaying imperial civilizations who were imposing their hegemony on the rest of Europe. At the same time, Russia had recently undergone its Bolshevik Revolution and was supporting Marxist revolutionary activity and ideology throughout Europe.

All of the countries in which fascism took root were countries that had significant socialist movements. Fascism was the opposition to those socialist movements. Fascism further recognized the finance capitalism of the United States and Britain as a destructive and corrupting force on "Western Culture" and as a threat to the still developing European countries, such as Italy, Germany and Ireland.

  • Additionally, the fascist State embarks on imperialism, not only through the traditional means of colonial territorial control, like that of the British Empire, but through the use of hegemony to directly or indirectly control nations with or without occupation;
  • Of the three major ideologies, laissez-faire capitalism, fascism, and Marxist socialism, fascism was the only one which was objectively pro middle class;
  • This assertion was deliberately and actually untrue;
  • And that party is either the Left:

So, this was the environment in which fascism formed; in an environment where the "lesser" countries of Europe felt trapped between the established powers of international capital and the powers of revolutionary Marxism. Fascism was ultimately born out of, and supported by, conservatism and the belief that Western Civilization had become decadent and self-ruinous. In 1927 Oswald Spengler, who wrote Decline of the Westwrote that the infection the West was suffering came from certain elements.

He went on to state: The organism of the West has been weakened, debilitated by these ideologies. Well, there is in existence only one movement existing at the present time which has the courage possessing the power of a great nation to be fundamentally, openly, ferociously anti-liberal, anti- democratic, anti-Freemason: The fact that "The Decline of the West" was written, read and believed is clear proof that Germany, and with it Europe, was in deadly danger, heading for destruction.

Spengler pinpointed the worldview situation of the declining liberal age. Mussolini argued that it was ridiculous to base policy simply on the desires of the majority because of his belief in the decline of Western Understanding fascism and the hatred against the jewish people and the idea that the majority of people had become decadent. In his 1935 essay on fascism, Fascism: Doctrine and InstitutionsMussolini wrote: In fact, Germany was the birthplace of Marxism, as it is where Karl Marx was born and schooled and where his ideologies were first accepted.

Germany, at the time of the fascist takeover, had one of the strongest Marxist traditions in the world with a large and organized Marxist labor movement. Fascism ultimately rejected all of the ideas contained in Marxism and took action to break Marxist labor movements.

Marxism champions the pursuit of the equality of race, gender, and economic status. Marxism stated that democracy as it was practiced was not truly representative of all people, it was only representative of establishment interests, and thus Marxism was a call for "true" and total democracy where every citizen was totally equal in their political influence.

Marxism, of course, stated that religion was the "opium of the people" and a barrier to solutions for worldly problems, and Marxism, as an atheist ideology, acknowledges nothing supernatural and held that the only things that exist are material; that all of reality is simply the material reality that we see and experience.

Additionally, Marxism held that "class struggle" was the driving force of social progress, and that class struggle was the appropriate means by which a just society would be created. Fascism was based on the fundamental rejection of all of these ideas. Mussolini states in his 1935 essay on fascism: Such a conception of life makes Fascism the complete opposite of that doctrine, the base of so-called scientific and Marxian Socialism, the materialist conception of history; according to which the history of human civilization can be explained simply through the conflict of interests among the various social groups and by the change and development in the means and instruments of production.

That the changes in the economic field-new discoveries of raw materials, new methods of working them and the inventions of science-have their importance no one can deny; but that these factors are sufficient to explain the history of humanity excluding all others is an absurd delusion.

Fascism’s Rising in America Because America Doesn’t Understand Fascism

Fascism, now and always, believes in holiness and in heroism; that is to say, in actions influenced by no economic motive, direct or indirect. And if we deny the economic conception of history, according to which men are no more than puppets carried to and fro by the waves of chance, while the real directing forces are quite out of their control, it follows that the existence of an unchangeable and unchanging class-war is also denied-the natural progeny of the economic conception of history.

And above all Fascism denies that class-war can be the preponderant force in the transformation of society. Hitler's 1933 Reichstag speech, considered one of his most important because of its generally positive reception by the international community, also clearly defined the fascist anti-Communist agenda. The monarchs were dethroned, the authorities of the Reich and of the States removed from office, and thereby a breach of the Constitution was committed. The success of the revolution in a material sense protected the guilty parties from the hands of the law.

They sought to justify it morally by asserting that Germany or its Government bore the guilt for the outbreak of the War.

  1. The desires of the fascist leaders, Mussolini, Franco, and Hitler, to "improve" society were genuine. Fascism ultimately rejected all of the ideas contained in Marxism and took action to break Marxist labor movements.
  2. Mussolini states in his 1935 essay on fascism. The early laissez-faire economists, such as Adam Smith, believed in the liberal ideology that individuals should be encouraged to take actions that would be beneficial to society.
  3. The military focus worked best in Germany, which proceeded to produce some of the most advanced technologies in the history of the world at the time, and the most advanced weapons. It is an empire-that is to say, a nation which directly or indirectly rules other nations without the need of conquering a single square yard of territory.
  4. One of the ultimate agendas, and successes, of the fascists was to create a strong and stable middle class. Steigmann-Gall identifies what he calls a "Protestant affinity" for Nazi politics leading up to January 1933, when Hitler became chancellor of Germany.

This assertion was deliberately and actually untrue. In consequence, however, these untrue accusations in the interest of our former enemies led to the severest oppression of the entire German nation and to the breach of the assurances given to us in Wilson's fourteen points, and so for Germany, that is to say the working classes of the German people, to a time of infinite misfortune.

The splitting up of the nation into groups with irreconcilable views, systematically brought about by the false doctrines of Marxism, means the destruction of the basis of a possible communal life. It is only the creation of a real national community, rising above the interests and differences of rank and class, that can permanently remove the source of nourishment of these aberrations of the human mind.

The establishment of such a solidarity of views in the German body corporate is all the more important, for it is only thereby that the possibility is provided of maintaining friendly relations with foreign Powers without regard to the tendencies or general principles by which they are dominated, for the elimination of communism in Germany is a purely domestic German affair.

Mussolini declared fascism as the ideology understanding fascism and the hatred against the jewish people the "ethical State". From Mussolini's 1935 essay: The foundation of Fascism is the conception of the State, its character, its duty, and its aim.

Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute, in comparison with which all individuals or groups are relative, only to be conceived of in their relation to the State. The "Liberal State" is not a directing force, guiding the play and development both material and spiritual of a collective body, but merely a force limited to the function of recording results.

On the other hand, the Fascist State is itself conscious, and has itself understanding fascism and the hatred against the jewish people will and a personality-thus it may be called the "ethical" State. The individual in the Fascist State is not annulled but rather multiplied, just in the same way that a soldier in a regiment is not diminished but rather increased by the number of his comrades. The Fascist State organizes the nation, but leaves a sufficient margin of liberty to the individual; the latter is deprived of all useless and possibly harmful freedom, but retains what is essential; the deciding power in this question cannot be the individual, but the State alone.

The Fascist State is an embodied will to power and government, the idea of force in action. According to Fascism, government is not so much a thing to be expressed in territorial or military terms as in terms of morality and spirit.

It is an empire-that is to say, a nation which directly or indirectly rules other nations without the need of conquering a single square yard of territory.

That statement says a lot so I will dissect out the finer points. This starts to get tricky because of modern understandings of what Liberalism is. I don't want to get too far ahead, but I will say that the modern popular concept of "Liberalism" in America is in some ways the concept of fascism, and what was at that time referred to as Liberalism would perhaps be referred to as libertarianism in America today, thus the above statement is seemingly confusing.

Firstly, fascism, as it relates to governance, is an ideology based on the importance of the State. Fascism holds that the institution of the State is itself the most important entity in society, i. Secondly, fascism holds that the purpose of the State is not just to uphold rights and document legalities, but that the purpose of the State is to organize society and guide the spiritual and economic development of the nation.

  • I am no follower of Fascism;
  • The development of laissez-faire capitalist ideology was based on the premise that when allowing people to peruse their own private interests people would be guided by an "invisible hand" to act in the best interests of society.

Thirdly, the goal of the fascist State is to, essentially, protect people by removing "harmful" freedoms, while preserving "essential" rights. These two concepts are what most people in America identify with so-called "Nanny State Liberalism", although in truth both conservatives and liberals in America support such views. Additionally, the fascist State embarks on imperialism, not only through the traditional means of colonial territorial control, like that of the British Empire, but through the use of hegemony to directly or indirectly control nations with or without occupation.

This is known as neo-liberalism, but is now often referred to as neo-conservatism, as this practice is supported mostly by the American Right today. There are two somewhat distinct aspects of fascism, social fascism and economic fascism.

Paolo Di Canio is right — Italian Fascism was not racist

Both the economic and social aspects of fascism focused importance on the role of the State. The fascist concept of the State was as an entity which was to be used to promote the "cultural well being" of civilization; that liberal society existed in chaos because the State had no authority to enforce organization or to actually promote culture or to give people a direction, and that it was the goal of fascism to give people direction in a chaotic world. The desires of the fascist leaders, Mussolini, Franco, and Hitler, to "improve" society were genuine.

These were not people who were simply trying to take power in order to materially benefit themselves. They did materially benefit themselves in the process, but they had an honest desire to transform society and, in their view, make the world a better place. Economic Fascism Economic fascism was essentially the predecessor of Keynesian ideology. However, Keynes' economic ideology is essentially the same thing as economic fascism, and indeed Keynes himself was heavily influenced by fascism, associated with fascist thinkers, and stated that the fascists were perhaps the most well suited to adopting his economic agenda which is really because they had already developed similar programs.

Keynesianism is an attack on laissez-faire capitalism and proposes solutions to the problems posed by that model. In relation to the State Keynes said in 1924: The most important items on the Agenda of the State relate not to those activities which private individuals are already fulfilling, but to those activities which fall outside the sphere of the individual, to those decisions which are made by no one if the State does not make them.

  1. On May 2, 1942, three years before the end of the war, Joseph Goebbels wrote in his personal diary. Through the use of these types of programs, and deficit spending, both Germany and Italy quickly rose up out of the worldwide depression and become some of the most successful countries of the time economically.
  2. The central bank gave up on managing the currency. The fascist concept of the State was as an entity which was to be used to promote the "cultural well being" of civilization; that liberal society existed in chaos because the State had no authority to enforce organization or to actually promote culture or to give people a direction, and that it was the goal of fascism to give people direction in a chaotic world.
  3. One of the ultimate agendas, and successes, of the fascists was to create a strong and stable middle class. As a Christian I have no duty to allow myself to be cheated, but I have the duty to be a fighter for truth and justice.
  4. In truth there is some disconnect between the "true" beliefs of some fascist leaders and what they espoused in public, but what is actually most important is understanding the public perception of fascism because this is what determined fascist culture and this is what the public at large believed in and were drawn to.

The important thing for Government is not to do things which individuals are doing already, and to do them a little better or a little worse, but to do those things which at present are not done at all. I confess that much of the following book is illustrated and expounded mainly with reference to the conditions existing in the Anglo-Saxon countries. Nevertheless the theory of output as a whole, which is what the following book purports to provide, is much more easily adapted to the conditions of a totalitarian state than is the production and distribution of a given output produced under conditions of perfect competition and a large measure of laissez-faire.

This is one of the reasons that justifies my calling my theory a general theory. Since it is based on less narrow assumptions than the orthodox theory, it is also more easily adapted to a large order of different circumstances. Although I have thus worked it out having the conditions in the Anglo-Saxon countries in view - where a great deal of laissez-faire still prevails - it yet remains applicable in situations where national leadership is more pronounced. The essence of Keynesian economic ideology is basically the use of the State to promote economic interests, the idea that the State should promote a middle class through the redistribution of wealth, and the idea of the use of State spending in order to promote employment.

The early laissez-faire economists, such as Adam Smith, believed in the liberal ideology that individuals should be encouraged to take actions that would be beneficial to society. The development of laissez-faire capitalist ideology was based on the premise that when allowing people to peruse their own private interests people would be guided by an "invisible hand" to act in the best interests of society.

The foundation of laissez-faire ideology was not the pursuit of self interest for self interest's sake, but rather that through the laissez-faire process social interests would be served. As Smith put it, men would live in a system of natural liberty in which each individual would be free to pursue his own ends but would be guided as if by an invisible hand to serve the interests of others in society as the means to his own self-improvement.

By the turn of the 20th century people in all advanced capitalist societies were reaching the conclusion that Smith's vision understanding fascism and the hatred against the jewish people society was simply not being realized and that laissez-faire policy was in fact not serving the interests of society, but rather the interests of a small wealthy elite.

One of the ultimate agendas, and successes, of the fascists was to create a strong and stable middle class.

They viewed the problems of Western society to be both "out of control" laissez-faire capitalism and its opposing force, Communism. The fascists correctly understood that Communism was a reaction to the excesses of laissez-faire capitalism. Thus they believed that the solution to the threat of Communism was the mitigation of the problems of laissez-faire capitalism.

Early 1931 Nazi poster reads: At this point it would be a good time to define what capitalism really is.