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Understanding an individuals social emotional and behavioural difficulties

I got suspended a lot. I would act this way to take the pressure off of myself. No one ever knew that I was really hurting. I dropped out at 15. Students with learning and attention issues often experience feelings of failure, lack of acceptance among their peers and high levels of bullying, which can increase the risk of misbehavior and absenteeism.

One study found that when students with disabilities are bullied, they are more likely to respond aggressively—not only to their bullies but to other children as well. Unfortunately, many of these children are identified as bullies themselves, which means they will receive bully interventions from teachers, rather than what they really need, which is social and communication skill instruction. Students with disabilities are more than twice as likely to be suspended as students without disabilities, and the loss of instructional time increases the risk of repeating a grade and dropping out.

The disproportionate rates of out-of-school suspension increase dramatically for students of color who have disabilities. As shown in the chart below, 1 in 4 black males with IEPs received out of school suspensions in 2013-2014 compared to 1 in 10 white males with IEPs. The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA provides protections for students with disabilities by setting specific rules about discipline that schools must follow.

For example, if a student is suspended for a total of more than 10 days in one school year, the school must provide special education services to allow the understanding an individuals social emotional and behavioural difficulties to make progress on his or her IEP goals. However, the disproportionate suspension rates suggest that schools may be overlooking disability-connected behaviors.

The school-to-prison pipeline is discussed in detail later in this chapter.

Behavior Disorders: Definitions, Characteristics & Related Information

Department of Education reminded schools that they are required to provide positive behavioral supports to a child with a disability who needs them. In 2016, the U. Over 1 million students with IEPs miss three or more weeks of school a year, which can affect academic achievement—and increase the risk of dropping out.

Altogether, chronically absent students missed about 98 million school days in 2013—2014. These reasons include illness, unstable housing and transportation problems. For students with learning and attention issues, the reasons may also include academic struggles, bullying and disengagement with school.

When struggling students develop an aversion to school, they may seek relief by staying home. These absences can be an early sign to parents and teachers that a child may have unidentified learning and attention issues. Some parents may allow students to stay home occasionally. A day or two each month may not seem significant to families, but the cumulative effect can have a major impact on academic achievement. In eighth grade, students with poor attendance scored an average of 18 points lower on the math assessment.

Researchers have also noted that chronic absenteeism tends to spike in kindergarten, sixth grade, and ninth grade. These are years when many students are transitioning to new schools and may be struggling to adjust. Absenteeism is also strongly linked to dropout rates. A statewide study in Utah found that students who were chronically absent in any year, starting in 8th grade, were 7. The dropout rate for students with understanding an individuals social emotional and behavioural difficulties disabilities is nearly three times the rate for all students.

In January 2017, dropout data were released for most states for students with disabilities in 2014—2015. Although the dropout rates for students with SLD and OHI have decreased over the last decade, these rates remain unacceptably high. Over the last decade, nearly half a million students with SLD have left school without a diploma, placing them at high risk for poor outcomes such as unemployment, underemployment, and involvement with the criminal justice system. To reduce the dropout rate for students with learning and attention issues, schools need to focus on improving school climate as well as addressing instructional needs.

More research is also needed on credit recovery programs—including online credit recovery programs—that aim to reduce dropouts. But little is known about how effective these programs are for students with learning and attention issues. Failure to address learning and attention issues too often leads to students being incarcerated, which further disrupts their education and contributes to high dropout and recidivism rates.

Some studies indicate a third or more of incarcerated youth have learning disabilities. For example, ADHD can involve trouble with impulse control or difficulty thinking about consequences before making a decision. Students with learning and attention issues may also be grappling with bullying, lack of appropriate instruction, or other aspects of an unsupportive school climate.

And educators might not be prepared to address the social, emotional and behavioral challenges these students face. Many schools are incorporating social and emotional learning SELbut it needs to be tailored to help students with learning and attention issues. In recent understanding an individuals social emotional and behavioural difficulties, schools across the country have begun experimenting with programs that focus on social and emotional learning SELwith promising early findings.

Understand their strengths and needs Manage their emotions and persevere through challenges Think about others and empathize Work in teams and resolve conflicts Make responsible choices In 2012, Kansas became the first state to integrate social, emotional and character development into a single, seamless set of standards for K—12 education. Because ESSA allows states to choose an additional indicator, there is a clear opportunity for states to help develop positive environments that engage all learners.

However, because SEL programs require the use of skills that students with learning and attention issues often struggle with, schools need to provide targeted supports to help these students fully participate in SEL curricula. For example, schools should: New Understanding an individuals social emotional and behavioural difficulties regulations aim to reduce disproportionate disciplinary rates among students of color with disabilities.

Classroom management strategies that provide effective behavioral supports Schoolwide efforts to create safe, supportive learning environments Manifestation determinationswhich affect how students with disabilities are disciplined The Equity in IDEA regulations: Require states, for the first time, to use a standard approach to comparing racial and ethnic groups Require districts to identify and address the root causes of the disproportionality Allow districts to use funding—which had been reserved for at-risk general education students—to address significant disproportionalities among special education students The regulations are a step toward more uniform data collection and identification of districts that might be unfairly disciplining certain groups of students.

The funding provision is also key. But the most profound difference is that they have faced much harsher discipline and therefore are far more likely to be denied instructional time and special education services. To provide equity for students receiving special education, it is imperative for schools to assess their evaluation and placement processes and disciplinary practices to ensure that all children are being accurately identified, fairly treated and provided sufficient resources.

Early warning systems use data to identify students at risk of dropping out and provide more effective interventions. Many states and districts are using data to help identify students early in high school or even middle school who are at risk of not graduating on time. These early warning systems commonly involve three dropout indicators: Chronic absenteeism can be a sign of learning and attention issues or of other issues that are distracting students or making them not want to go to school.

Students who get suspended even once in sixth grade are less likely to graduate on time. Low grades could be a sign of unidentified or inadequately supported learning and attention issues, disengagement with school or a combination of these.