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Thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording

Introduction Perhaps the earliest use of technology in qualitative research was when researchers first used tape recorders in their field studies to record interview sessions. In one sense this was clearly an easier way for researchers to keep a record of events and conversations, but it had two unforeseen consequences. First, it began to shift the effort of work in making a record of sessions from the researcher who traditionally took handwritten notes to others, such as secretaries and audio typists.

This separation had an impact not only on how close to or distant from the data the researcher could remain, but also on the relationship between the data and the emerging analytic ideas of the researcher.

Having a recording and a transcript meant that new ways of thinking about how the analysis developed out of the data and how the analysis was supported by the data became possible. Second, it allowed different kinds of analysis that could only be undertaken if accurate records of the speech were kept. This made possible a focus on the small scale and minute content and characteristics of speech.

It also opened up the possibilities of much larger scale studies and the use of multiple researchers and analysts.

Thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording?

In the 21st century, the use of new technology still raises issues like what should be analysed, how it should be analysed and in what ways the knowledge and understanding gained are different and more or less well founded than those gained in more traditional ways.

The papers in this issue address both these impacts of the technology: Most researchers recognise that in most cases, the use of new technology usually affects both.

Pagination

Data Gathering Audio recording is an analogue technology, as are film and traditional video. There is a long history of their use in many areas of social and psychological research and especially in anthropology. Recent changes in this technology have taken several forms. First it has become cheaper and more widespread. This means that the technology is more available to researchers, but also that the people being researched are more used to being recorded by the technology and even familiar with using it themselves.

For example, in the case of video, people are now used to being recorded whether as part of a "holiday video" or as part of the now widespread CCTV Closed Circuit Television security systems. They are often familiar with making their own video recordings and with "reading" the wide variety of video material they are presented with.

Both the cheapness and ubiquity of the technology mean that there are new opportunities for researchers not only to record settings but also to use the technology to create new data. Naturally, the use of such technology raises issues thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording interpretation, impact and validity that researchers need to deal with. Initially she used the images displayed on a laptop computer as a way of prompting teachers' discussion about their work practice.

However, she found that they very quickly ignored the pictures and started more general discussions about their work practices. Consequently, she used printed versions of the photos as the basis of a group discussion amongst the researchers. Whilst this prompted some creative thinking about teachers' front and back stage activities, it raised the important question of whether the researchers' interpretation of the photos was the same as teachers' actual experience.

Interaction patterns in task-oriented small groups discuss the use of the video analysis software, THEME, to identify communicative patterns in two distinct examples of task-oriented small group interaction. They focused on power-related and support-related behaviour as well as verbal and nonverbal patterns in the behaviour.

Section 6: Overall Impact of Technology on the Arts

With the software they found two interaction patterns that it would have been hard to detect without the use of the software: Not only has this made the technology cheaper and more widely used, but also it has made possible new ways of manipulating and analysing the data collected. This can be seen particularly in digital video where there is now some excellent software that can be used to display, examine and edit digital video recording in ways that are much easier and cheaper than non-digital video.

The software makes it possible to rearrange, present, and navigate through video in ways that were not possible before.

Whereas previously research involved the arduous creation of written sequence narratives, now using the software, the researcher could select video clips of only those behaviours of interest and quickly inspect the relevant behaviours and come to analytical conclusions.

The former thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording discussion lists, text forums, personal Web pages and videoconferences.

The latter include usage logs, text content logs as well as digitised recordings. As they point out, one key advantage here is that there is no need for transcription. Moreover, the e-interview might enable research about new social groupings, given that constraints of time, travel and financial resources do not apply. However, problems of how to establish and preserve rapport are created and the authors explore the issues that arise from the physical remoteness between interviewer and interviewee and the absence of cues and tacit signs provided by body language.

As they point out, researchers need to be aware of the speed at which they should reply and at which they can expect replies from respondents. However, given the necessarily extended duration of e-interviews, there is no reason why several respondents cannot be interviewed at the same time. At the moment too, as they point out, researchers need to be aware of the biased samples that might result from surveying only those with good e-mail access.

She employed a free association interview method adapted from psychoanalytic therapy and communicated with respondents using e-mail. Despite dealing with highly personal and emotionally charged topics, she found that compared with her earlier, face-to-face interviews, there was a lack of inhibition and rapport was easily established.

However, she did note some gender differences. Women generally gave quicker and more emotionally detailed responses. Some authors have pointed to the anonymous and disembodied nature of electronic communication, however, HOLGE-HAZELTON found that her respondents often overcame that by the mutual exchange of personal and demographic details including pictures of themselves.

Computer-based Transcription of Videoconference in this issue, discuss the parallel questions that arise when applying a conversational approach to videoconferences.

In particular, they point out that conventional forms of transcription fail to take into account the issue of time delays between sites and the visual information that is also exchanged. For that reason, they suggest, current multimedia transcription approaches need to be modified to take into account the specifics of videoconference data and to make them accessible to qualitative data analysis. They suggest a computer-mediated process of transcription can be used. They suggest that computer mediated interaction should be considered as neither oral nor written language, but as a post-literate transformation of language itself.

In particular they suggest that this transformation can only be properly studied using qualitative methodologies.

They examine this in the context of an online educational environment and conclude that online thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording is significantly different from others in terms of temporality, the influence of community and reflexivity.

For them, online discourses allow modes of communications that foster learning in ways that cannot be done in face-to-face environments.

Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis CAQDAS It is clear that the introduction of new technology has both expanded the ways in which qualitative researchers can collect data and also the settings and situations from which data can be collected. The other major impact of technology on qualitative work discussed in this issue has been on how the analysis is done.

It is the common experience of researchers carrying out qualitative analysis that such work requires careful and complex management of large amounts of texts, codes, memos, notes and so on. The prerequisite of really effective qualitative analysis, it could be said, is efficient, consistent and systematic data management.

The early programs focussed on data management and those most available now provide considerable assistance in these activities. The use of such text retriever and textbase manager programs, and related facilities such as simple searching in CAQDAS, is relatively uncontentious. In fact many of these aspects of data management do not need dedicated CAQDAS and much can be achieved with the use of other commonly available software such as word processors and databases.

An analysis according to data attributes or variables like age, gender, profession, etc. There is a clear advantage in that the software is widely available and most of its functions are familiar to qualitative researchers. This is particularly the case when undertaking initial, broad-brush examination of the data and when generating simple counts.

However, to go beyond this requires a level of sophistication with the word processors and databases that most qualitative analysts don't have, or have time for. And qualitative analysts do seem to want to go further.

  1. As Frere- Jones puts. The approach is multi-stage.
  2. The speaking vibrations made indentations in the paper.
  3. After initial coding, data are assessed, rated and organised into a conceptual structure, i.
  4. With the Internet rapidly growing every day, another danger of the World Wide Web is illegal music downloads, piracy is a big problem in the UK and even in the rest of the World, as it is so easy to find anything the consumer wants with a click of a button. There are both good and bad effects associated with these technologies.
  5. Survey results reveal that on a purely practical level, the internet, digital technologies and social media are powerful tools, giving arts organizations new ways to promote events, engage with audiences, reach new patrons, and extend the life and scope of their work.

One of the arguments used by developers to support the "effectiveness" of CAQDAS is based on the programs' origins—many were designed by qualitative researchers themselves who claim to know the "real" needs of analysts.

This argument has been increasingly reinforced by the development, over time, of new program features. The second generation of CAQDAS, for example, introduced facilities for coding text and for manipulating, searching and reporting on the text thus coded. Such code and retrieve software is now at the heart of the most commonly used programs and has extended the use of the software into areas much closer to the analytic heart of qualitative research.

In so doing it has brought to the fore contested issues about how far the software can actually assist with analysis rather than just with data management.

  1. There is clearly value in being able to add quantitative parameters to generalisations made in analysis.
  2. This kind of integrated use of software might be another pointer for the future, though this will depend in part on the ability to import and export data easily. If there are no gatekeepers, it will become even more difficult to draw attention to works of genuinely high quality.
  3. On the other hand, we still cherish the choice to be surprised. I hope technologies do not negatively affect the playwright.

For example, there are those who remain sceptical about the use of software for the more analytic aspects of qualitative research.

The mechanical aspects refers to all the activities that underpin qualitative data analysis, such as marking up selected text with codes, generating reports, searching the text for key terms, usages and so on. These can be time consuming, tedious and error prone and it is these tasks that the computer can assist well with. However, the conceptual aspects of analysis, that include reading the text, interpreting it, creating coding thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording and identifying fruitful searches and reports, need a human and cannot be done by machine, he suggests.

They assist with analytic procedures by providing a variety of facilities to help the analyst examine features and relationships in the texts. Such programs are often referred to as theory builders or model builders, not because on their own they can build theory, but because they contain various tools that assist researchers to develop theoretical ideas and test hypotheses. Some programs have also extended the forms of work supported beyond the lone researcher examining plain text.

For instance, some support rich text, diagrams and the incorporation of images, movies and other multimedia data. Others have facilities that enable the exchange of data and analyses between researchers working together collaboratively. Some papers in this issue examine the new possibilities here. Their method, the holistic processing of complexity GABEK based on the philosophical concept of comprehension and explanation, is designed to cope with the large, diverse and often controversial data created in areas such as conflict studies, organisations, innovation studies and sociology.

The approach is multi-stage. After initial coding, data are assessed, rated and organised into a conceptual structure, i. Furthermore, causal assumptions can be examined in the form of a complex cause-effect graph that facilitates the analysis of controversial issues and fosters comparative analyses.

There are several questions about how audio, video and text data integrated together may be collected and analysed and the paper examines these. It also discusses the impact on computer-assisted analysis of such "multimedia" data and suggests that special methods of transcription may limit the analytic approach.

There is therefore a need for new ways of approaching the analysis of such data.

Arts Organizations and Digital Technologies

IRION suggests the application of modular software tools and illustrates his proposal with an example. Resistances and Possibilities discusses how the software can be used to underpin analysis by teams. In particular he discusses how the use of CAQDAS can be fully integrated into the research process and how this integration can support collaborative teamwork and allow the exploration of analytic dimensions that would be difficult to explore in other ways.

The latter allowed separately created computer based analyses to be merged together. He suggests this is best done using an analysis based on broad themes that can be agreed and exchanged using the software facilities amongst a team. Whilst this may loose some of the depth and specificity of the phenomena studied, BOURDON argues that it allows better exploration of differences between cases and facilitates the examination of multiple perspectives of the research team. They examine some of the issues researchers need to consider when selecting software and the analytic approach they are going to take.

They also discuss some of the support facilities available to those new to the software, such as training courses and on-line discussion lists. He identifies many of the misconceptions that learners have about the software, for example, that it will do the analysis for them and that they will learn about qualitative data analysis by learning the software.

Thesis on impact of digital technology on home recording

He argues for an approach to training that focuses initially on the aspects of qualitative analysis that researchers need to understand before they use the software, and that then examines several different programs.

When starting to use the software, he suggests it is very important that learners should be able to analyse their own data set, as it is easier for them to understand how the research questions that arise from it can be addressed when using the software.

Concerns about the limitations of CAQDAS and its impact on the kinds of analysis that can be undertaken and their quality are reflected in several of the papers in this issue.

Amongst the issues they identify is a feeling of being distant from the data.