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The status of christianity in 15th century spain

Forced conversions of Muslims in Spain

Received 2014 Jun 18; Accepted 2014 Oct 15. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  • Institutions developed by non-Jews to protect and further their own group interests -- such as the Inquisition -- are predictably seen by Netanyahu as well as by other similarly motivated historians as the height of immorality;
  • Powerful Middlemen At the heart of the conflict between Old and New Christians was the familiar tendency of the non-Jewish ruling elite to utilize Jews to further their interests at the expense of the non-elite members of society, that is, of the great mass of the Spanish people;
  • What we have here, in short, is a novel ideology of superficial Christianity that served to rationalize the continuity of Jewish group identity and cohesiveness among the New Christians;
  • Because this prescribed method was so difficult to complete within the imposed deadline, in practice the Muslims of Aragon had to accept forcible conversion;
  • Jewish Publication Society of America, 1986 , pp;
  • They do not believe that God rewards virginity and chastity.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Isotopic values for animals were also found to vary widely, both between and within species, and this provides a window into the local livestock economy.

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Am J Phys Anthropol 156: C4 plants, Islamic, Mediterranean, collagen, faith Stable isotope analysis of archaeological bone collagen is a well-established technique that can provide direct evidence of the diet of archaeological populations down to the level of an individual Ambrose, 1993. This information needs to be properly contextualized to maximize its benefits and is best used alongside other sources of evidence such as faunal assemblages and written texts.

A growing number of projects have now applied the technique to medieval Mediterranean populations e. Responding to this challenge, this article presents data from late medieval populations from the mainland peninsula and examines the diets of Muslims and Christians living in a single locale in the Kingdom of Valencia during the 13th—16th centuries AD.

It is the first such study to attempt this.

The intermingling of faiths in medieval Spain can be explored from numerous angles, through literature, architecture, the development of science and the study of archaeological objects, to name a few e. The study of diet using stable isotope evidence is particularly noteworthy, however, because it offers the prospect of detecting directly the dietary preferences of different faiths living side-by-side within the same community.

This life together, or convivencia as it is termed, lent itself to some surprising cultural influences, for example the popularity of couscous among Christians and their adopted habit of dining when seated on a cushion on the floor de Castro, 1993: However, it ended in the forced conversion and subsequent expulsion of Jews and Muslims from Spain after AD 1492 and 1609, respectively. The realities of religious co-existence within this pluralistic society have long been the subject of academic debate Glick, 1992 ; Soifer, 2009 and food, in particular, might be expected to gain a significance that went beyond physiological need.

Islamic Spain Ended in the 15th Century and We Still Can’t Agree If It Was a Paradise or Hell?

While dietary preference may be constrained by the local availability of foodstuffs, it is often used to express cultural and social identities such as status, ethnicity, gender, occupation and regional difference e. Religious groups, in particular, may identify themselves by what they choose to consume or to avoid MacClancy, 1992: With this in mind, the aim of the research described here was to use stable isotopes to characterize the diet of two faith communities living in the same locality.

Christianity in the 15th century

Animal remains were also obtained to act as an isotopic baseline and in order to investigate aspects of economy and animal husbandry. By the end of the 15th century these two faith communities had lived side-by-side for over 250 years, the Muslims being tolerated by the Christians, by now segregated and closed away from the religious perspective but, at the same time, making vital contributions to agriculture, traditional crafts and commerce Guiral, 1989: