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The role of h bonding in living

  • Cellulose[ edit ] Hydrogen bonds are important in the structure of cellulose and derived polymers in its many different forms in nature, such as such as cotton and flax;
  • Since oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, oxygen pulls the shared electrons more closely to itself;
  • These four electrons can form separate covalent bonds with other elements, which means that they bond together by sharing electrons;
  • Hydrogen bonds also play a part in forming the tertiary structure of protein through interaction of R-groups;
  • Once the hydrogen is removed, two sugars bond together and form long repeating chains of a strongly linked unit.

Hydrogen bonding is responsible for water's unique solvent capabilities. Hydrogen bonds hold complementary strands of DNA together, and they are responsible for determining the three-dimensional structure of folded proteins including enzymes and antibodies.

Water A simple way to explain hydrogen bonds is with water.

Why is hydrogen bonding important?

The water molecule consists of two hydrogens covalently bound to an oxygen. Since oxygen is more electronegative than hydrogen, oxygen pulls the shared electrons more closely to itself. This gives the oxygen atom a slightly more negative charge than either of the hydrogen atoms.

Hydrogen bond

This imbalance is called a dipole, causing the water molecule to have a positive and negative side, almost like a tiny magnet. Water molecules align so the hydrogen on one molecule will face the oxygen on another molecule. This gives water a greater viscosity and also allows water to dissolve other molecules that have either a slightly positive or negative charge.

Protein Folding Protein structure is partially determined by hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonds can occur between a hydrogen on an amine and an electronegative element, such as oxygen on another residue.

  1. Significance Besides acting as an important structural element, hydrogen has a hand in nearly every single physiological function of living organisms due to its usefulness and abundance.
  2. When more molecules are present, as is the case with liquid water, more bonds are possible because the oxygen of one water molecule has two lone pairs of electrons, each of which can form a hydrogen bond with a hydrogen on another water molecule. Water[ edit ] A ubiquitous example of a hydrogen bond is found between water molecules.
  3. Antibodies Antibodies are folded protein structures that precisely target and fit a specific antigen.

As a protein folds into place, a series of hydrogen bond "zips" the molecule together, holding it in a specific three-dimensional form that gives the protein its particular function. Nucleotides pair precisely based on the position of available hydrogen bond donors available, slightly positive hydrogens and hydrogen bond acceptors electronegative oxygens. The nucleotide thymine has one donor and one acceptor site that pairs perfectly with the nucleotide adenine's complementary acceptor and donor site.

  • For example, the double helical structure of DNA is due largely to hydrogen bonding between its base pairs as well as pi stacking interactions , which link one complementary strand to the other and enable replication;
  • This molecule is composed of two twisting strands bound together by hydrogen bonds.

Cytosine pairs perfectly with guanine through three hydrogen bonds. Antibodies Antibodies are folded protein structures that precisely target and fit a specific antigen. Once the antibody is produced and attains its three-dimensional shape aided by hydrogen bondingthe antibody will conform like a key in a lock to its specific antigen. The antibody will lock onto the antigen through a series of interactions including hydrogen bonds.

The human body has the capacity to produce over ten billion different types of antibodies in an immunity reaction. Chelation While individual hydrogen bonds are not very strong, a series of hydrogen bonds is very secure.

  1. Liquid water's high boiling point is due to the high number of hydrogen bonds each molecule can form, relative to its low molecular mass. It is a crucial part of the uniqueness of water.
  2. Carbon and hydrogen atoms are so prevalent in living organisms that there are molecules called hydrocarbons that are made up almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen. The density of ice is less than the density of water at the same temperature; thus, the solid phase of water floats on the liquid, unlike most other substances.
  3. When this happens, hydrogen develops a slight positive charge, which attracts other negatively charged particles.

When one molecule hydrogen bonds through two or more sites with another molecule, a ring structure known as a chelate is formed. Chelating compounds are useful for removing or mobilizing molecules and atoms such as metals.