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The prominence of rap music in the 1990s

The Roaring 1920s: Radio versus Records

Origins and the old school Although widely considered a synonym for rap music, the term hip-hop refers to a complex culture comprising four elements: Hip-hop originated in the predominantly African American economically depressed South Bronx section of New York City in the late 1970s.

Graffiti and break dancingthe aspects of the culture that first caught public attention, had the least lasting effect. Soon, influential art dealers in the United States, Europe, and Japan were displaying graffiti in major galleries.

The first major hip-hop deejay was DJ Kool Herc Clive Campbellan 18-year-old immigrant who introduced the huge sound systems of his native Jamaica to inner-city parties. Using two turntables, he melded percussive fragments from older records with popular dance songs to create a continuous flow of music.

Kool Herc and other pioneering hip-hop deejays such as Grand Wizard Theodore, Afrika Bambaataa, and Grandmaster Flash isolated and extended the break beat the part of a dance record where all sounds but the drums drop outstimulating improvisational dancing.

Contests developed in which the best dancers created break dancing, a style with a repertoire of acrobatic and occasionally airborne moves, including gravity-defying headspins and backspins.

Grandmaster Flash accepting an award in 2006. Needle dropping, created by Grandmaster Flash, prolonged short drum breaks by playing two copies of a record simultaneously and moving the needle on one turntable back to the start of the break while the other played.

Other influences cited include the hipster-jive announcing styles of 1950s rhythm-and-blues deejays such as Jocko Henderson ; the black power poetry of Amiri BarakaGil Scott-Heronand the Last Poets; rapping sections in recordings by Isaac Hayes and George Clinton; and the Jamaican style of rhythmized speech known as toasting. Within weeks of its release, it had become a chart-topping phenomenon and given its name to a new genre of pop music.

15 Great Canadian Rappers Who Aren't Drake

The new school In the mid-1980s the next wave of rappers, the new school, came to prominence. At the forefront was Run-D. Def Jam featured three important innovators: Hammer, from OaklandCaliforniawho experienced short-lived but massive crossover success with a pop audience. The most significant response to New York hip-hop, though, came from Los Angelesbeginning in 1989 with N. Dre —led the way as West Coast rap grew in prominence in the early 1990s.

This developed into a media-fueled hostility between East Coast and West Coast rappers, which culminated in the still-unsolved murders of Shakur and the wildly gifted MC known as the Notorious B.

Its impact was global, with formidable audiences and artist pools in cities such as Paris, Tokyo, Sydney, Cape TownLondon, and Bristol, England where the spin-off trip-hop originated.

It also generated huge sales of products in the fashion, liquor, electronics, and automobile industries that were popularized by hip-hop artists on cable television stations such as MTV and The Box and in hip-hop-oriented magazines such as The Source and Vibe.

  • Dre, and the Notorious B;
  • Reacting against the extravagance of disco, many poor urban rappers developed their new street culture by adopting a casual image consisting of T-shirts and sportswear, developing a language that reflected the everyday concerns of the people in low-income, urban areas, and by embracing the low-budget visual art form of graffiti;
  • The Tin Pan Alley tradition of song publishing continued throughout the first half of the 20th century with the show tunes and soothing ballads of Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin, and songwriting teams of the early 1950s, such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller;
  • Technology Progresses Technological advances during the 1940s made it even easier for people to listen to their favorite music and for artists to record it.

A canny blend of entrepreneurship and aestheticship-hop was the wellspring of several staple techniques of modern pop music, including digital drumming and sampling which introduced rap listeners to the music of a previous generation of performers, including Chic, Parliament-Funkadelicand James Brownwhile at the same time creating copyright controversies. Hip-hop suffered at least as severely as or worse than other genreswith sales tumbling throughout the decade.

Simultaneously, though, it solidified its standing as the dominant influence on global youth culture. Kellyand Kirk Franklin straddled both worlds. Big Boi left and Andre 3000 of OutKast performing at an awards show in 2004. Dre remained mostly silent for the remainder of the decade, working on technology for a new brand of headphones but never releasing an album after 1999.

Eminem, whose outlaw status was challenged by his Hollywood success, seemed adrift for a time, and the Los Angeles style exemplified by Dr. Dre in the 1990s lost much of its power. Eminem in 8 Mile 2002. In the 21st century the music—born from the sonic creations of the deejay—saw its greatest innovations in the work of such studio wizards as TimbalandSwizz Beatz, and the Neptunes.

The focus on producers as both a creative and a commercial force was concurrent with a widespread sense that the verbal dexterity and poetry of hip-hop was waning. The dissatisfaction with the state of mainstream hip-hop was sufficiently common that in 2006 Nas released an album titled Hip Hop Is Dead.

Hip-hop celebrity now often came hand-in-hand with multimedia success, such as a burgeoning film career for Ludacris.

Snoop Dogg headlined rock festivals alongside Bruce Springsteen. Perhaps no one represented the cultural triumph of hip-hop better than Jay-Z. However, his endless self-promotion and often arrogant aura also demonstrated some of the elements that now tried the patience of many listeners. Kanye West performing at the 47th annual Grammy Awards, Feb. No single artist may have better personified hip-hop in the 21st century than M.

  • The new school In the mid-1980s the next wave of rappers, the new school, came to prominence;
  • Reacting against the commercialism of disco and corporate rock, punk artists created a minimalist, angry form of rock that returned to rock and roll basics;
  • This developed into a media-fueled hostility between East Coast and West Coast rappers, which culminated in the still-unsolved murders of Shakur and the wildly gifted MC known as the Notorious B;
  • Within weeks of its release, it had become a chart-topping phenomenon and given its name to a new genre of pop music;
  • Protest music in the 1960s was closely aligned with the hippie culture, in which some viewed taking drugs as a form of personal expression and free speech.

Not only was her album Kala named the best album of 2007 by Rolling Stone, but M.