Term papers writing service


The overlooked and misdiagnosed multiple personality disorder

Messenger Once known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder remains one of the most intriguing but poorly understood mental illnesses. Research and clinical experience indicate people diagnosed with the condition have been victims of sexual abuse or other forms of criminal mistreatment.

But a vocal group of academics and health professionals have claimed dissociative identity disorder, and reports of trauma associated with it, are created by therapists and the media.

The overlooked and misdiagnosed multiple personality disorder

Media references to dissociative identity disorder are also often highly stigmatising. The recent movie Split depicted a person with the condition as a psychopathic murderer. Even supposedly factual reporting can present people with dissociative identity disorder as untrustworthy and prone to wild fantasies and false memories. And brain imaging studies show significant differences in brain activity between people with dissociative identity disorder and other groups, including those who have been trained to mimic the disorder.

Dissociative identity disorder has been studied by doctors and scientists for well over 100 years. In 1980, it was called multiple personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSMwhich outlines the symptoms of psychiatric conditions. Its name was changed in the 1994 edition of the DSM.

Trauma and dissociation

Reports of childhood trauma in people with dissociative identity disorder that have been substantiated include burning, mutilation and exploitation. Sexual abuse is also routinely reported, alongside emotional abuse and neglect. In response to overwhelming trauma, the child develops multiple, often conflicting, states or identities. These mirror the radical contradictions in their early attachments and social and family environments — for instance, a parent who swings unpredictably between aggression and care.

According to the DSM-5, the major characteristic of dissociative identity disorder is a disruption of identity, in which a person experiences two or more distinct personality states or, in other cultures, experiences of so-called possession. The person frequently experiences gaps in memory or difficulties recalling events that occurred while they were in other personality states.

The manifestations of these symptoms are subtle and well concealed for most patients. However, overt symptoms tend to surface during times of stress, re-traumatisation or loss. Media references to dissociative identity disorder, like the lead character in the movie Split, are often highly stigmatising. These include depression, self-harm, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, and increased susceptibility to physical illness.

They frequently have difficulties engaging in daily life, including employment and interactions with family.

What is it?

This is, perhaps, unsurprising, given people with dissociative identity disorder have experienced more trauma than any other group of patients with psychiatric difficulties. Dissociative identity disorder is a relatively common psychiatric disorder. Trauma and dissociation The link between severe early trauma and dissociative identity has been controversial. Some clinicians have proposed dissociative identity disorder is the result of fantasy and suggestibility rather than abuse and trauma.

  • Its name was changed in the 1994 edition of the DSM;
  • Those with a borderline personality disorder and frequently those with autism are misdiagnosed as having a personality disorder, when there are multiple;
  • In 1980, it was called multiple personality disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM , which outlines the symptoms of psychiatric conditions;
  • Dissociative identity disorder did , formerly known as multiple-personality disorder, is one of the more controversial diagnoses in the diagnostic and statistical;
  • But the causal relationship between trauma and dissociation alterations of identity and memory has been repeatedly shown in a range of studies using different methodologies across cultures;
  • Phase-orientated treatment has been shown to improve dissociative identity disorder.

But the causal relationship between trauma and dissociation alterations of identity and memory has been repeatedly shown in a range of studies using different methodologies across cultures. People with dissociative identity disorder are generally unresponsive to and may deteriorate under standard treatment. This may include cognitive behavioural treatment, or exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder. What is exposure therapy and how can it treat social anxiety?

  • Learn about what may be causing disruptive behavior;
  • The following are personal accounts from individuals whose health has been harmed by exposure to petroleum based synthetic chemicals in the work-place or home Wow you have really done your research, good job;
  • Sexual abuse is also routinely reported, alongside emotional abuse and neglect.

Phase-orientated treatment has been shown to improve dissociative identity disorder. This involves stages or phases of treatmentfrom an initial focus on safety and stabilisation, through to containment and processing of trauma memories and feelings, to the final phase of integration and rehabilitation.

The goal of treatment is for the person to move towards better engaging in life without debilitating symptoms. An international study that followed 280 patients with dissociative identity disorder or a variant of it, which is a dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and 292 therapists over time, found this approach was associated with improvements across a number of psychological and social functioning areas.

Patients and therapists reported reduction in dissociation, general distress, depression, self-harm and suicidal thoughts. Controversies and debates Critics have pointed to poor therapeutic practice causing dissociative symptoms as well as false memories and false allegations of abuse. Some are particularly concerned therapists are focused on recovering memories, or encouraging patients to speculate that they have been abused.

A recent literature analysis concluded that criticisms of dissociative identity disorder treatment are based on inaccurate assumptions about clinical practice, misunderstandings of symptoms, and an over-reliance on anecdotes and unfounded claims. Dissociative identity disorder treatment is frequently unavailable in the public health system.

This means people with the condition remain at high risk of ongoing illness, disability and re-victimisation.

  • Male borderline personality disorder;
  • Download the app and start listening to overcoming borderline personality disorder called multiple overlooked or misdiagnosed by therapists and;
  • Even supposedly factual reporting can present people with dissociative identity disorder as untrustworthy and prone to wild fantasies and false memories;
  • Its name was changed in the 1994 edition of the DSM.

The underlying cause of the disorder, which is severe trauma, has been largely overlooked, with little discussion of the prevention or early identification of extreme abuse. Future research should not only address treatment outcomes, but also focus on public policy around prevention and detection of extreme trauma. If this article has raised concerns for you or anyone you know, call Lifeline 13 11 14, Suicide Call Back Service 1300 659 467 or Kids Helpline 1800 55 1800.