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The many discoveries of anaxamander of miletus the philosopher

Thales of Miletus Introduction Thales of Miletus c. He was one of the so-called Seven Sages of Greece, and many regard him as the first philosopher in the Western tradition. He was the founder of the Milesian School of natural philosophy, and the teacher of Anaximander. He was perhaps the first subscriber to Materialist and Naturalism in trying to define the substance or substances of which all material objects were composed, which he identified as water.

His innovative search for a universality in the disciplines of mathematics, astronomy and philosophy have earned him the label the "first scientist".

The 3rd Century A. Details of his life are sketchy and often contradictory. Some reports suggest that he married and had a son, Cybisthus or Cybisthon or possibly adopted a nephew of the same name, while other reports suggest that he never married.

  • If all things were alive, they must also have souls or divinities a natural belief of his time , and the end result of this argument was an almost total removal of mind from substance, opening the door to an innovative non-divine principle of action;
  • Man originated from some other kind of animal, such as fish , since man needs a long period of nurture and could not have survived if he had always been what he is now;
  • Much of what we know of Thales' philosophy has come down to us from Aristotle and so may be somewhat distorted by Aristotle 's own views;
  • His innovative search for a universality in the disciplines of mathematics, astronomy and philosophy have earned him the label the "first scientist";
  • As much as his later life is concerned, there are a lot of conflicting information;
  • He claimed that water was the origin of all things, that from which all things emerge and to which they return, and moreover that all things ultimately are water.

Some say that he left no writings; others that he wrote at least two works, "On the Solstice" and "On the Equinox" neither have survived. Some anecdotes suggest that Thales was involved in business and politics, and at one point bought up all the olive presses in Miletus after predicting a good harvest for a particular year either to make money or merely to demonstrate that he could use his intelligence to enrich himself if he had wanted to.

His involvement in local politics is also rather anecdotal in nature, but Thales apparently impressed both sides of the ongoing conflict between the Lydians, Medes and Persians over the fate of the region of Ionia, when he predicted an eclipse of the sun which brought fighting to a standstill. He was also reportedly involved in the negotiations which followed the hostilities, and managed to obtain favorable terms for Miletus.

ADDITIONAL MEDIA

Thales is said to have died of dehydration while watching a gymnastics contest in 546 or 547 B. Work Back to Top In retrospect it is difficult to separate history from legend, but he is usually considered one of the Seven Sages or Seven Wise Men of ancient Greece, a group of 7th and early 6th Century B.

The aphorism "Know thyself" has been attributed to Thales as well as to at least six other ancient Greek sages. Much of what we know of Thales' philosophy has come down to us from Aristotle and so may be somewhat distorted by Aristotle 's own views. Some sources say that he left no writings; others that he wrote at least two works, "On the Solstice" and "On the Equinox" neither of which have survived.

The early Pre-Socratic philosophers of which Thales was one of the very first tried to define the substance or substances of which all material objects were composed as do modern scientists even today, hence Thales is sometimes described as the first scientist.

Anaximander

He searched for the "physis" or nature of objects that cause them to behave in their characteristic way. He was one of the first Western philosophers who attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world Naturalism or Materialism without reference to supernatural or mythological explanations, such as the Greek anthropomorphic gods and heroes.

  1. In addition to being viewed as the beginner of Western philosophy, Thales of Miletus is also the first to define general principles and develop hypotheses.
  2. Thales is said to have died of dehydration while watching a gymnastics contest in 546 or 547 B.
  3. He was one of the first Western philosophers who attempted to find naturalistic explanations of the world Naturalism or Materialism without reference to supernatural or mythological explanations, such as the Greek anthropomorphic gods and heroes.

He explained earthquakes, for example, by hypothesizing that the Earth floats on water and that earthquakes occur when the Earth is rocked by waves. His most famous belief was his cosmological doctrine that water was the first principle roughly equivalent to Anaximenes ' later idea that everything in the world was composed of air. He claimed that water was the origin of all things, that from which all things emerge and to which they return, and moreover that all things ultimately are water.

He probably drew this conclusion from seeing moist substances turn into air, slime and earth, and he clearly viewed the Earth as solidifying from the water on which it floated and which surrounded it.

Thales of Miletus

While considering the effects of magnetism and static electricity, he concluded that the power to move other things without the mover itself changing was a characteristic of "life", so that a magnet and amber must therefore be alive in some way in that they have animation or the power to act.

If so, he argued, there is no difference between the living and the dead. If all things were alive, they must also have souls or divinities a natural belief of his timeand the end result of this argument was an almost total removal of mind from substance, opening the door to an innovative non-divine principle of action.

Thales recognized a single transcendental God Monismwho has neither beginning nor end, but who expresses himself through other gods Polytheism.

  1. Thales of Miletus Books.
  2. He is often considered the founder of astronomy, and he tried to observe and explain different aspects of the universe and its origins, and to describe the mechanics of celestial bodies in relation to the Earth. He was also an important innovator in astronomy, and he had an effective theory of the path of the sun from solstice to solstice and supposedly correctly predicted a solar eclipse.
  3. His most famous belief was his cosmological doctrine that water was the first principle roughly equivalent to Anaximenes ' later idea that everything in the world was composed of air. He saw the universe as a kind of organism, supported by "pneuma" cosmic breath.
  4. He judged that, although not directly perceptible to us, the only substance which could explain all the opposites he saw around him, is what he called "apeiron" variously translated as "the infinite", "the boundless", etc , an endless, unlimited primordial mass, subject to neither old age nor decay, that perpetually yielded fresh materials from which everything we perceive is derived. He saw the universe as a kind of organism, supported by "pneuma" cosmic breath.
  5. In addition to being hailed as the first philosopher, Thales of Miletus is sometimes also hailed as the first mathematician.

His idea of justice included both the letter of the law and the spirit of the law e. He had some common sense moral advice: He believed that a happy man was one who was "healthy in body, resourceful in soul and of a readily teachable nature".

  • Some reports suggest that he married and had a son, Cybisthus or Cybisthon or possibly adopted a nephew of the same name, while other reports suggest that he never married;
  • Thales was known for his theoretical and practical understanding and innovative use of geometry, especially triangles.

His political views were generally in favor of a benign tyranny, rather than democracy which most thinkers of his time distrusted as an inefficient and unreliable system. He believed that men were naturally better than women, and that Greeks were better than barbarians non-Greeks. Thales was known for his theoretical and practical understanding and innovative use of geometry, especially triangles. He established what has become known as Thales' Theorem, whereby if a triangle is drawn within a circle with the long side as a diameter of the circle then the opposite angle will always be a right angle as well as some other related properties derived from this.

He was also an important innovator in astronomy, and he had an effective theory of the path of the sun from solstice to solstice and supposedly correctly predicted a solar eclipse. Some sources have attributed him with the "discovery" of the seasons of the year and the 365-day year consistent with his determination of the solstices.

While this may be an exaggeration, his questioning approach to the understanding of heavenly phenomena arguably marked the real beginning of Greek astronomy. Thales of Miletus Books.