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The inception of the renaissance in america and its influence in history

Influence and Interpretations W riting in the 1430s, Matteo Palmieri of Florence celebrated "this new age, so full of hope and promise" with a greater collection of "nobly-gifted souls" than the world had seen in a thousand years.

Like others of his day, Palmieri believed he was living in a special time, a period of tremendous intellectual and artistic creativity inspired by the ancient world.

That era came to be known as the Renaissance, and ever since Palmieri's day historians have discussed its causes, characteristics, and importance. However, most have used more than just dates to identify the time.

They have also examined intellectual movements, political changes, technological advances, and other factors in an attempt to understand Renaissance society. The cultural changes that launched the Renaissance began to take shape around 1350. At about that time, new developments in learning, the arts, politics, and society emerged in Italy. By the late 1400s these developments had spread to the rest of Europe, aided by the invention of printing.

In northern Europe, other factors, such as new religious ideas, influenced Renaissance thought. No single date marks the end of the Renaissance. Nevertheless, historians generally agree that, by the mid-1600s, the artistic and intellectual trends of the period had run their course and new ideas were emerging.

Events such as the Thirty Years' War 1618—1648 had changed the political map of Europe. By then, humanists had revived the learning of ancient Greece and Rome and made it part of the curriculum at European schools and universities.

A few developments after the mid-1600s, such as the later works of the English poet John Milton who died in 1674 are also often included in the Renaissance. The Renaissance View of the Era. The notion of an age focused on reviving the best features of ancient culture began with the Italian poet Petrarch in the mid-1300s.

Scholars of the 1400s and 1500s, especially Italians, further developed Petrarch's ideas about the Renaissance and his belief that it was a unique period of history. Petrarch changed the European view of history. He divided history in a new way, with its turning point in the a. For Petrarch, this marked the end of the classical era and the beginning of a less civilized time.

He began calling the two eras "ancient" and "modern," and he clearly valued the ancient more highly. By the inception of the renaissance in america and its influence in history time of his death in 1374, Petrarch had acquired followers who shared his vision. They contributed to the burst of classical scholarship—especially the recovery and publication of many texts from ancient Greece and Rome—that fueled the humanist movement. The humanist historian Flavio Biondo 1392—1463 promoted the idea of dividing history into three distinct periods: Other humanists developed the view that the Middle Ages had been a time of darkness and ignorance.

This view of the origins of the Renaissance became widespread in Italy during the 1400s and 1500s. French humanists acknowledged that the Renaissance had begun in Italy, but also credited French figures, such as king Francis I ruled 1515—1547for their efforts in encouraging a cultural rebirth. Some northern European thinkers, including the philosopher Desiderius Erasmus ca.

Protestant historians of the time accepted the concept of ancient and medieval periods giving way to a rebirth. They also saw their own age as the time in which true religion was restored. Although Italian writers paid little attention to religious matters when describing the Renaissance, Protestant historians often viewed the period in terms of both a revival of scholarship and religious reform.

They have compared the Renaissance with the periods before and after it; noted the forms it took in various parts of Europe; examined the relationship between the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation; and traced the influence of the Renaissance on later culture. For centuries, most historians shared the view of the period as a rebirth after the darkness of the Middle Ages.

  • It coincided with a boom in exploration, trade, marriage and diplomatic excursions;;;
  • Many people would host rent parties which were very popular at the time;
  • This system dominated European education for centuries.

More recently, scholars have expanded and sometimes challenged that interpretation. The 1700s and 1800s. Intellectuals of the 1700s inherited from the humanists the division of history into three eras. They tended to emphasize the contrast between the Middle Ages and the modern era.

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In Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations 1756the French writer Voltaire argued that during the Middle Ages the church had joined forces with certain governments to suppress individual freedom and reason. During the 1300s, 1400s, and 1500s, Italians and then the French had begun to shake off the chains of religion and take rational steps forward.

Following Voltaire's lead, French art historian Jean-Baptiste Seroux d'Agincourt 1730—1814 identified the Renaissance with the art of the period between the Middle Ages and the 1700s. Three scholars shaped the view of the Renaissance as a unique period of history. French historian Jules Micheletin The Renaissance 1855was the first to conceive of the Renaissance as a distinct the inception of the renaissance in america and its influence in history in European civilization, with a unique spirit that expressed itself in every aspect of life.

That spirit, he wrote, was "the discovery of the world and the discovery of man. Four years later, German historian Georg Voigt published a detailed study of Italian humanism. He saw a sharp break between medieval culture and the Renaissance, which he considered the beginning of modern culture. Voigt credited Petrarch with launching the Italian Renaissance and discovering "the new world of humanism.

He identified Petrarch as displaying this characteristic because the poet expressed his personal interests rather than following an established philosophical system. Swiss historian Jakob Burckhardt was the most influential Renaissance scholar of the 1800s. In The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy 1860Burckhardt summed up the views of the historians of his day and influenced other scholars for a century.

His book covers six aspects of Italian Renaissance civilization: In the section on politics, Burckhardt describes the origins of the Italian city-states. In discussing individualism, he argues that medieval people were aware of themselves only as members of families and other groups, but Renaissance people saw themselves as independent individuals. The third section of his book covers the revival of antiquity, which guided Renaissance humanists as they developed their interests and talents.

The fourth section deals with Renaissance advances in scientific and geographic discovery. Next, in a discussion of society, Burckhardt claims that Renaissance cities developed a social structure in which status depended on culture and wealth, not birth.

In the last section, on religion, the author suggests that excessive individualism led to a breakdown in morals and a loss of respect for religion in Italy. Individualism also contributed to the country's decline in the 1500s.

However, by that time the Italian Renaissance had succeeded in bringing Europe into the modern world. Burckhardt's views on the Italian Renaissance were widely accepted, but scholars differed in their interpretations of the Renaissance in northern Europe. Most agreed that it was a break from the Middle Ages and that humanism was a key element.

They disagreed, however, on the role of the Protestant Reformation. As a result, the northern Renaissance was never as clearly defined as the Italian Renaissance. In addition, some historians tended to think that the modern world originated in northern Europe in the 1500s, not in Italy in the 1400s. From the 1900s Onward. From Petrarch through the 1800s, the Renaissance was seen as a revolt against the Middle Ages. The 1900s brought a reaction from scholars who specialized in medieval studies.

Some accepted the existence of the Renaissance but placed its beginning back in earlier times. Others claimed that the Renaissance brought nothing new, that it was just a continuation—or even a decline—of medieval culture. The most influential attack on the Renaissance by a medievalist came from Charles Homer Haskins.

The Renaissance – why it changed the world

In The Renaissance of the Twelfth Century 1927 he argued that the modern world had really begun in the 1100s and that the Italian Renaissance was a minor historical episode. Renaissance scholarship increased dramatically after the end of World War II in 1945.

Most scholars accepted the idea of the Renaissance but did not attempt sweeping studies of it.

American Renaissance

Instead, they focused on distinct aspects or phases of the Renaissance. The major contribution of historians after the 1940s was identifying humanism as the unifying force of the Renaissance.

In The Crisis of the Early Italian Renaissance 1955Hans Baron distinguished between the early humanism of Petrarch and his followers, who advised withdrawal from active life in favor of study, and the later humanism of Leonardo Bruni and other Florentines, who believed that scholars should be involved in public affairs. Paul Oskar Kristeller 1905—1999perhaps the most important Renaissance scholar of the 1900s, concentrated on humanism.

Many other scholars accept this definition. Another strand of Renaissance study has consisted of art criticism and art history. During the 1800s, John Ruskin and Walter Pater and other critics wrote extensively about the works of artists such as Michelangelo, Giorgione, and Leonardo da Vinci.

The leading authority on Italian Renaissance painting for much of the 1900s, Bernard Berensonviewed the Renaissance as a golden age. His influential studies focused on the qualities of works of art, rather than on the social and intellectual climates that produced them. Since the mid-1900s scholars have examined the Renaissance from multiple angles, such as its religious expressions and political organization. Specialists called social historians have increasingly turned away from politics and famous individuals to study the entire range of human activities and social groups.

Sifting through mountains of historical data, social historians have provided detailed information about such aspects of life as courtship, marriage, poverty, crime, and the roles and rights of women. Most scholars today still regard the Renaissance as different from the Middle Ages and as the beginning of the modern era.

Further research and interpretation will no doubt continue to influence thinking about the Renaissance. It transformed Europe and, eventually, the rest of the world.

In addition, it left a legacy that still shapes many aspects of modern life.

Renaissance: Influence and Interpretations

Renaissance humanists created a school curriculum based on classical languages and literature. This system dominated European education for centuries. The English and French carried this humanist curriculum to North Americawhere, until the early 1900s, certain universities required students to know classical Latin.

Before the Renaissance, some people had thought of history as shaped by divine forces. By contrast, the humanists viewed history as a fully human activity. They also began to distinguish different ways of writing about history: The notion of history writing as a technical discipline based on facts began with the Renaissance historians. The art and architecture of the Renaissance had a lasting influence on later centuries.

Masterpieces by Michelangelo, Leonardo, Raphael, and other Renaissance masters became standards of greatness. In addition, later artists continued trends begun during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance also revived the classical idea of portraits as realistic images of individuals, a move toward modern portraiture.