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The economic cultural religious social and emotional reasons why marriage takes place

They had been living together their entire senior year of college and planned on getting married right after graduation. The marriage was viewed as very strong by outsiders.

He and his younger sister lived with his financially struggling mother. The mother had a live-in boyfriend that she married when John was in high school. The Asian step father was helpful in getting John summer jobs and encouraged John to attend the local community college before moving to the four-year university.

She chose not to marry the father and was currently raising the child as a single parent. Working and taking care of the child made college a remote possibility.

  1. In a DNA analysis of 4,600-year-old bones found in Germany, scientists found indicators of patrilocal living arrangements Haak et al 2008. Census, however, allowed same-sex couples to report as spouses regardless of whether their state legally recognizes their relationship.
  2. However, let each one of you love his wife as himself, and let the wife see that she respects her husband. Remarriage lacks many of the classic courtship rituals of a first marriage.
  3. While there is no official central registry of shaken-baby syndrome statistics, it is estimated that each year 1,400 babies die or suffer serious injury from being shaken Barr 2007. Injury, poor health, and mental instability occur at a high rate in this group, with 80 percent meeting the criteria of one or more psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, or suicidal behavior, by age twenty-one.

The best man, Brad, was in and out of relationships. He was currently seeing a woman with several children of different parentage. The gossip had this relationship lasting about the same amount of time as all the previous encounters. Rebecca and John had a gay couple as ushers. Steve and Roger had been in a monogamous relationship for almost ten years, had adopted a minority daughter and were starting a web-based business together.

It was obvious they both adored their child, and they planned on being married at a Washington destination ceremony later in the year. Between 2006 and 2010, nearly half of heterosexual women 48 percent ages fifteen to forty-four said they were not married to their spouse or partner when they first lived with them, the report says. Census Bureau reports that the number of unmarried couples has grown from fewer than one million in the 1970s to 8. Cohabitating, but unwed, couples account for 10 percent of all opposite-sex couples in the United States U.

Some may never choose to wed Gardner 2013. With fewer couples marrying, the traditional U. Religion, in one form or another, has been found in all human societies since human societies first appeared.

Archaeological digs have revealed ritual objects, ceremonial burial sites, and other religious artifacts. Social conflict and even wars often result from religious disputes.

To understand a culture, sociologists must study its religion. He went on to elaborate: Some people associate religion with places of worship a synagogue or churchothers with a practice confession or meditationand still others with a concept that guides their daily lives like dharma or sin.

All these people can agree that religion is a system of beliefs, values, and practices concerning what a person holds sacred or considers to be spiritually significant.

Does religion bring fear, wonder, relief, explanation of the unknown or control over freedom and choice?

Introduction

How do our religious perspectives affect our behavior? These are questions sociologists ask and are reasons they study religion. How do religious ideas affect the real-world reactions and choices of people in a society?

Religion can also serve as a filter for examining other issues in society and other components of a culture. For example, after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, it became important for teachers, church leaders, and the media to educate Americans about Islam to prevent stereotyping and to promote religious tolerance. A Paradigm for Analysis 1995points to the notion that social problems are, in essence, contradictions—that is, statements, ideas, or features of a situation the economic cultural religious social and emotional reasons why marriage takes place are opposed to one another.

Consider then, that one of the greatest expectations in U. In fact, a college degree is rapidly becoming an expectation at nearly all levels of middle-class success, not merely an enhancement to our occupational choices.

And, as you might expect, the number of people graduating from college in the United States continues to rise dramatically. The contradiction, however, lies in the fact that the more necessary a college degree has become, the harder it has become to achieve it. The cost of getting a college degree has risen sharply since the mid-1980s, while government support in the form of Pell Grants has barely increased. The net result is that those who do graduate from college are likely to begin a career in debt.

Added to that is that employment opportunities have not met expectations. The Washington Post Brad Plumer May 20, 2013 notes that in 2010, only 27 percent of college graduates had a job related to their major. The business publication Bloomberg News states that among twenty-two- year- old degree holders who found jobs in the past three years, more than half were in roles not even requiring a college diploma Janet Lorin and Jeanna Smialek, June 5, 2014. Is a college degree still worth it?

  • In modern urban industrial life, children have become viewed as an economic liability and as preventing both parents from working;
  • Once children are produced, the family plays a vital role in training them for adult life.

All this is not to say that lifetime earnings among those with a college degree are not, on average, still much higher than for those without. But even with unemployment among degree-earners at a low of 3 percent, the increase in wages over the past decade has remained at a flat 1 percent. And the pay gap between those with a degree and those without has continued to increase because wages for the rest have fallen David Leonhardt, New York Times, The Upshot, May 27, 2014.

But is college worth more than money? Generally, the first two years of college are essentially a liberal arts experience.

Social Institutions: Family, Religion, and Education

The student is exposed to a fairly broad range of topics, from mathematics and the physical sciences to history and literature, the social sciences, and music and art through introductory and survey-styled courses. Memorization of raw data still occurs, but if the system works, the student now looks at a larger world. Then, when he or she begins the process of specialization, it is with a much broader perspective than might be otherwise.

What is a Family?

  1. Crime rates in general have been shown to be directly related to the state of marriage in a community.
  2. Research suggests that while marital conflict does not provide an ideal childrearing environment, going through a divorce can be damaging.
  3. Some traditions allowed a woman who failed to bear a son to be given back to her father.
  4. If information or assistance from public or private services are available and a parent fails to use those services, child welfare services may intervene U.

What do you think constitutes a family? While the two institutions have historically been closely linked in U. The relationship between marriage and family is an interesting topic of study to sociologists.

Different people define it in different ways. Not even sociologists are able to agree on a single meaning. Other variations on the definition of marriage might include whether spouses are of opposite sexes or the same sex and how one of the traditional expectations of marriage to produce children is understood today.

Sociologists are interested in the relationship between the institution of marriage and the institution of family because, historically, marriages are what create a family, and families are the most basic social unit upon which society is built. Both marriage and family create status roles that are sanctioned by society.

So what is a family? A husband, a wife, and two children—maybe even a pet—has served as the model for the traditional U. But what about families that deviate from this model, such as a single-parent household or a homosexual couple without children? Should they be considered families as well? The question of what constitutes a family is a prime area of debate in family sociology, as well as in politics and religion. Social conservatives tend to define the family in terms of structure with each family member filling a certain role like father, mother, or the economic cultural religious social and emotional reasons why marriage takes place.

Sociologists, on the other hand, tend to define family more in terms of the manner in which members relate to one another than on a strict configuration of status roles. A family of orientation refers to the family into which a person is born. A family of procreation describes one that is formed through marriage.

These distinctions have cultural significance related to issues of lineage. Drawing on two sociological paradigms, the sociological understanding of what constitutes a family can be explained by symbolic interactionism as well as functionalism. These two theories indicate that families are groups in which participants view themselves as family members and act accordingly. In other words, families are groups in which people come together to form a strong primary group connection and maintain emotional ties to one another over a long period of time.

Such families may include groups of close friends or teammates. In addition, the functionalist perspective views families as groups that perform vital roles for society—both internally for the family itself and externally for society as a whole. Parents care for and socialize children. Later in life, adult children often care for elderly parents. We will go into more detail about how these theories apply to family in. Challenges Families Face People in the United States as a whole are somewhat divided when it comes to determining what does and what does not constitute a family.

In a 2010 survey conducted by professors at the University of Indiana, nearly all participants 99. Ninety-two percent stated that a husband and a wife without children still constitute a family. The numbers drop for less traditional structures: The study also revealed that 60 percent of U. While this structured definition can be used as a means to consistently track family-related patterns over several years, it excludes individuals such as cohabitating unmarried heterosexual and homosexual couples.

Legality aside, sociologists would argue that the general concept of family is more diverse and less structured than in years past. Society has given more leeway to the design of a family making room for what works for its members Jayson 2010. It is also very important to society. While the design of the family may have changed in recent years, the fundamentals of emotional closeness and support are still present.

Alongside the debate surrounding what constitutes a family is the question of what people in the United States believe constitutes a marriage. Many religious and social conservatives believe that marriage can only exist between a man and a woman, citing religious scripture and the basics of human reproduction as support. Social liberals and progressives, on the other hand, believe that marriage can exist between two consenting adults—be they a man and a woman, or a woman and a woman—and that it would be discriminatory to deny such a couple the civil, social, and economic benefits of marriage.

Marriage Patterns With single parenting and cohabitation when a couple shares a residence but not a marriage becoming more acceptable in recent years, people may be less motivated to get married.

The institution of marriage is likely to continue, but some previous patterns of marriage will become outdated as new patterns emerge. In this context, cohabitation contributes to the phenomenon of people getting married for the first time at a later age than was typical in earlier generations Glezer 1991.

People in the United States typically equate marriage with monogamy, when someone is married to only one person at a time. In many countries and cultures around the world, however, having one spouse is not the only form of marriage. In a majority of cultures 78 percentpolygamy, or being married to more than one person at a time, is accepted Murdock 1967with most polygamous societies existing in northern Africa and east Asia Altman and The economic cultural religious social and emotional reasons why marriage takes place 1996.

Instances of polygamy are almost exclusively in the form of polygyny. Polygyny refers to a man being married to more than one woman at the same time.

The reverse, when a woman is married to more than one man at the same time, is called polyandry.