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The characteristics of snowboarding as a sport

Received 2018 Mar 12; Accepted 2018 Jun 1. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

  • Halfpipes are approximately 11 to 22 feet 3;
  • No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms;
  • It is defined by the use of natural and artificial features such as rails, jumps, boxes, handrails, halfpipes, and other obstacles on which to perform aerial maneuvers and tricks.

Abstract The sport of snowboarding has grown in popularity as both a recreational winter activity as well as a prominent Olympic sport. Both forms are comprised of one of three different disciplines within the sport: In recent years, the increased professionalism and substantial growth of snowboarding as a global sport has increasingly attracted the interest of exercise physiologists and sport scientists.

Given the small but growing number of studies that have been published, the research analyzing the physiological and performance characteristics and requirements of snowboarding remains limited.

Snowboarding

The absence of such studies signifies a lack of examination into this important but under-explored area of research, which could contribute valuable information to the scientific community and international snowboarding teams.

The studies conducted thus far have indicated different requirements of physiological and physical traits dependent upon the specific discipline of snowboarding in question. For example, in order to meet the divers demands of each discipline, athletes must develop various qualities, such as muscular strength and power. This can increase their ability to withstand the high forces and loads on the muscular system during competition, and further decrease their risk of lower limbs injuries. At the same time, the studies acknowledge the potential advantages of aerobic fitness in terms of recovery, to more efficiently sustain the athlete through both competitive and on- and off-snow training sessions.

Given the value and breadth of application of these limited studies, further analysis and research could contribute greater knowledge and benefits to the field of snowboarding. Therefore, it is the purpose of this preliminary review to explore the current literature, providing further insight into the physiological and physical demands of snowboarding performance. This preliminary review is intended to stimulate interest among the communities of exercise physiologists, sport scientists and particularly coaches in order to improve our current understanding of snowboarding and its demands as a sport.

This preliminary review further seeks to develop protocols and strategies to assess physiological and performance characteristics of snowboarding, monitor athletic performance, provide practical recommendations for training, identify new areas of scientific research, and develop accurate talent identification programs.

  1. The goal is to ride untouched lines, and the backcountry journey often leads riders to peaks and locations deep in the wilderness.
  2. The Olympic standard height is 22 feet [6. This can increase their ability to withstand the high forces and loads on the muscular system during competition, and further decrease their risk of lower limbs injuries.
  3. At the few resorts that did allow snowboarding, special competency tests were required of riders before allowing them on the slopes. The jib-style slopestyle features can include handrails, ledges, or stair-sets that mimic those of urban landscapes commonly associated with skateboarders.
  4. These are considered technical contests because of the required tightness of the turns. There was, however, no mainstream participation in or fan base for the sport at this time, and early competitors and manufacturers honed their skills and boards in relative isolation.

In recognition of the trend, the International Olympic Committee officially introduced snowboarding into the Olympic program since Nagano 1998.

Despite some decline over the last 10 years, snowboarding remains key among winter sports and is represented by a high number of participants at most alpine resorts worldwide Bladin et al.

Traditionally, snowboarding is described as i freestyle SBfs - a skill-based discipline where athletes perform tricks and jumps either on the slopes or using specially built rails and half pipes; ii snowboard-cross SBx - where four to six athletes are required to maneuver inside a course characterized by multiple obstacles e.

Snowboarding as an athletic sport tests the boundaries of both physical and technical competence. The more we learn regarding the physiological demands placed upon elite snowboarders, the more effectively these qualities can be replicated and improved upon in the athletes.

Knowledge of the muscular forces and energy systems involved in snowboarding is important for training prescription, performance enhancement, injury prevention and talent identification. However, for many years snowboarding studies have been limited to the realm of injuries [e. More recently, snowboarding has attracted the interest of exercise physiologists and sport scientists, resulting in a small but growing number of studies being published. However, the extent of this research is based on the few available studies that analyze the physiological and performance requirements of snowboarding, and therefore limited information can be gleaned.

Physiological and Physical Profile of Snowboarding: A Preliminary Review

We believe this is an important though neglected area of research, which could offer vital information to the scientific community as well as snowboarding teams throughout the globe. This preliminary review explores the current literature to provide insights into the physiological and physical characteristics of snowboarding performance. Our aim is to stimulate exercise physiologists, sport scientists and particularly coaches to improve their understanding of snowboarding demands in order to develop protocols and strategies to better assess physiological and performance characteristics of snowboarding, monitor snowboarders performance, provide practical recommendations for training as well as new areas of scientific research and develop accurate talent identification programs.

Anthropometric variables and other factors that may be important in determining snowboarding performance are also discussed. The mean height is between 165.

  1. For example, in order to meet the divers demands of each discipline, athletes must develop various qualities, such as muscular strength and power.
  2. In recognition of the trend, the International Olympic Committee officially introduced snowboarding into the Olympic program since Nagano 1998. Traditionally, snowboarding is described as i freestyle SBfs - a skill-based discipline where athletes perform tricks and jumps either on the slopes or using specially built rails and half pipes; ii snowboard-cross SBx - where four to six athletes are required to maneuver inside a course characterized by multiple obstacles e.
  3. There is typically a set time period for the jam, and athletes may take as many turns as they want during the allotted time.
  4. Though this competition no longer exists, the newer Freeride World Tour draws an international class of riders who take turns descending a predetermined section of a mountain while judges rank them on line choice, degree of difficulty, style, and control. The absence of such studies signifies a lack of examination into this important but under-explored area of research, which could contribute valuable information to the scientific community and international snowboarding teams.
  5. Freestyle Freestyle has its roots in skateboarding and in the 2010s was the most popular style of snowboarding. The bulk of jibbing takes place outside judged events, but jibbing is part of slopestyle contests and of dedicated rail jam events.

The average body mass of elite men Italian snowboarders was 76. This value is similar to that reported in a study of elite Austrian men snowboarders 75.

Body composition seems to be of similar import. Taken together, these data argue for the potential importance of physique as well as body composition for snowboarding performance. Indeed, these characteristics may serve to manage the demands arising from fast and responsive turns and changing edges as well as negotiating obstacles. However, studies have incorporated only a small selection of anthropometric variables as part of investigations undertaken with different aims. Therefore, a more comprehensive data set on the anthropometric characteristics of elite snowboarders is missing and its quantification should be further investigated.

  • Snowboard tricks in the halfpipe have continued to evolve at a boggling pace;
  • Local Michigan Snurfer competitions followed in the late 1960s and spread out to national competitions in the 1970s;
  • Rail jam Rail jams are among the most grassroots of all snowboard competitions because of their minimal requirements;
  • Halfpipes are approximately 11 to 22 feet 3.

In doing so, opportunities may arise to better identify anthropometric qualities key to snowboarding performance. Table 1 O2max and anthropometric characteristics of snowboarders reported in the literature.