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Social economic and political factors that led to the french revolution

Causes, Outcomes, Conflicting Interpretations Mr.

Discuss the political, economic and social causes of the French Revolution.

Schwartz Causes of the French Revolution 1. Social antagonisms between two rising groups: Economic hardship, especially the agrarian crisis of 1788-89 generates popular discontent and disorders caused by food shortages. Dual or multiple sovereignty is the identifying feature of a revolutionary situation - the fragmentation of an existing polity into two or more blocs, each of which exercises control over some part of the government and lays claim to its exclusive control over the government.

A revolutionary situation continues until a single, sovereign polity is reconstituted. Revolutionary Process or Stages: As the French Revolution demonstrated, the level of violence is likely to be greater after the first outbreak of revolution or revolutionary situation, as one group claiming sovereignty seeks to vanquish one or more other rival groups also claiming sovereignty.

  • The doctors, lawyers, teachers, businessmen, writers and philosophers belonged to this class;
  • The Revolution as a tragedy vs;
  • Napoleon Defeated at the Battle of Waterloo;
  • Many reforms of Napoleon became permanent 3;
  • The Clergy belonged to the First Estate.

The so-called reign of Terror was instituted to quash both internal and foreign forces of counter revolution. But once these internal and foreign threats were under control in the spring of 1794, Terror continued at the direction of the Committee of Public Safety, the most famous member of which was Maximiliean Robespierre. This last period of Terror was aimed at eliminating political rivals of Robespierre and the Committee, which included Danton. The Directory relied on the army and military force to carry out these repressive acts at the same time it supported the army and Napoleon in an aggressive war of expansion in Europe and Egypt.

Having relied on the army so much, the Directory was in the end overthrown by Napoleon and military might. A reactionary phase in response to the excesses of radical republicanism universal male franchise and of Terror. Outcomes of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 1815 1. Stronger, further centralized state with a larger, more effective and more intrusive administration.

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Creation and extension of new civil rights: Changes in ideas and political culture: Liberty, Equality, Fraternity ; popular sovereignty: Conflicting Interpretations of the Revolution: The Influence of Ideas: Revolutionary ideology was the product, not the cause, of a political and social crisis of revolutionary proportions. A revolutionary situation emerged first and revolutionary thinking came out of that situation. The role of the people and violence: The French Revolution demonstrated the power of the common people in a manner that no subsequent government has ever allowed itself to forget--if only in the form of untrained, improvised, conscript armies, defeating the conjunction of the finest and most experienced troops of the old regimes.

When the common people did intervene in July and August of 1789, they transformed conflict among elites into something quite different, if only by bringing about, within a matter of weeks, the collapse of state power and administration and the power of the rural ruling class in the countryside. This is what gave the Declaration of the Rights of Man a far greater international resonance than the American models that inspired it; what made the innovations of France--including its new political vocabulary--more readily accepted outside; which created its ambiguities and conflicts; and, not least, what turned it into the social economic and political factors that led to the french revolution, the terrible, the spectacular, the apocalyptic event which gave it a sort of uniqueness, both horrifying and inspiring.

Hobsbawm, Echoes of the Marseillaise, 1990 3. The Revolution as a tragedy vs. In other words it transformed men's outlook. The writers of the Enlightenment, so revered by the intelligentsia who made the Revolution, had always believed it could be done if men dared to seize control of their own destiny.

Causes of French Revolution: Political, Social and Economic Causes

The men of 1789 did so, in a rare moment of courage, altruism, and idealism which took away the breath of educated Europe. What they failed to see, as their inspirers had not foreseen, was that reason and good intentions were not enough by themselves to transform the lot of their fellow men.

  • Y9 History Economical causes of the French Revolution were in fact very important and influential;
  • External factors that shaped french contributed greatly to social factors because they political once the revolution had taken place the;
  • So they influenced the people for revolution;
  • Outcomes of the French Revolution, 1789-1799 1815 1;
  • The condition of the farmers was very miserable.

Mistakes would be made when the accumulated experience of generations was pushed aside as so much routine, prejudice, fanaticism, and superstition. The generation forced to live through the upheavals of the next twenty-six years paid the price.

Already by 1802 a million French citizens lay dead; a million more would perish under Napoleon, and untold more abroad. How many millions more still had their lives ruined? Inspiring and ennobling, the prospect of the French Revolution is also moving and appalling: It represented an unprecedented effort to break with the past and to forge a new state and new national community based on the principles of liberty, equality, and fraternity.

After the old government was replaced, differences over the meaning of those principles and the ways they were to be put into practice grew more salient and serious. Thus the revolution continued until a stable state organization was consolidated, in part through the use of military force. Shaped and driven by passionate ideological differences, violence, and war, the revolution bequeathed to the French and to the World a new and enduring political vision: The French Revolution was, essentially, the invention of a new political culture: Nobles were able to return to their titles and to much of their land.

Although considerable amounts of land changed hands during the Revolution, the structure of landholding remained much the same; the rich got richer, and the small peasants consolidated their hold, thanks to the abolition of feudal dues.

Industrial capitalism grew at a snail's pace. In the real of politics, in contrast, almost everything changed. Thousands of men and even many women gained firsthand experience in the political arena: Revolution became a tradition, and republicanism an enduring social economic and political factors that led to the french revolution.

Afterward, kings could not rule without assemblies, and noble domination of public affairs only provoked more revolution. As a result, France in the nineteenth century had the most bourgeois polity in Europe, even though France was never the leading industrial power. Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class, 1984 4. The aristocracy of the Old Regime had been stripped of its privileges and social preponderance; feudal society had been destroyed.

By wiping out every vestige of feudalism, by freeing the peasants from seigneurial dues and ecclesiastical tithes--and also to some degree from the constraints imposed by their communities--by abolishing privileged corporations and their monopolies, and by unifying the national market, the French Revolution marked a decisive stage in the transition from feudalism to capitalism.

Was the Revolution a failure? Not worth the cost in lives and treasure? Was it only a political revolution: Had the revolution gone far enough?