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Review of related literature mobile computing android

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Abstract Background Interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially, particularly in the fields of psychology and medicine.

The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases.

Interest in mobile applications for health promotion and disease self-management is also growing. Despite the explosion of interest, research on both the design and potential uses of mindfulness-based mobile applications MBMAs is scarce.

  • The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases;
  • The most common operating system was Android.

Objective Our main objective was to study the features and functionalities of current MBMAs and compare them to current evidence-based literature in the health and clinical setting. Methods We searched online vendor markets, scientific journal databases, and grey literature related to MBMAs.

We included mobile applications that featured a mindfulness-based component related to training or daily practice of mindfulness techniques. We excluded opinion-based articles from the literature. The online market search eventually analyzed 50 available MBMAs.

The most common operating system was Android. No information about sensors was available. The analyzed applications seemed not to use any external sensor. No specific apps exist for professionals or, at least, for both profiles users and professionals. We did not find any evaluations of health outcomes resulting from the use of MBMAs. Conclusions While a wide selection of MBMAs seem to be available to interested people, this study still shows an almost complete lack of evidence supporting the usefulness of those applications.

We found no randomized clinical trials evaluating the impact of these applications on mindfulness training or health indicators, and the potential for mobile mindfulness applications remains largely unexplored.

Mindfulness-Based Mobile Applications: Literature Review and Analysis of Current Features

It is from this tradition that they draw inspiration and take their basic technical features. Since its introduction, interest in mindfulness has increased exponentially particularly over the last two decades in the psychology and medicine fields [ 1 ].

Several types of approaches have been tested from secular mindfulness-based therapies-MBTs to Eastern meditative traditions such as Zen and Vipassanaand scientific evidence of their effectiveness is rapidly accumulating [ 23 ]. The psychological trait or state of mindfulness refers to an awareness that emerges by way of paying attention intentionally and nonjudgementally, in the present moment, to the unfolding of the moment-by-moment experience [ 45 ].

Mindfulness is a skill that can be obtained using several training techniques, and group and individual interventions have been designed for this purpose [ 6 ].

  • The trait or state of mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of psychological health, and mindfulness-based therapies are effective at preventing and treating many chronic diseases;
  • These computers are built solely by Apple and have relatively high cost compared to Windows-powered and Linux-based computers.

Generally, two main complementary approaches have been used for mindfulness training 1 exercises in focused attention, and 2 open monitoring of experiences in the present moment. Mindfulness is significantly related to several indicators of physical and psychological health such as improved immune and autonomic nervous systems, higher levels of positive affect, life satisfaction, vitality, and adaptive emotional regulation, and it has been linked to lower levels of negative affect and psychopathological symptoms [ 237 ].

Furthermore, MBTs have demonstrated effectiveness in treating many disorders, including chronic pain conditions [ 8 - 10 ]. The mechanisms underlying the effects of mindfulness training on health are diverse and include improvements in attention control, coping and management of life stressors, descriptions of review of related literature mobile computing android experiences, thoughts and emotional awareness and regulation, and changes in the concept of the self or body awareness [ 11 ].

One of the main limitations of MBTs is the need for regular practice. Psycho-technology mobile apps have demonstrated effectiveness as a complementary tool in many psychotherapies [ 12 ], and they would be expected to be useful in MBTs as well. Information and Communication Technology Information and communication technology ICT concerns the elements and techniques related to manipulating and transmitting information, specifically, computers, the Internet, and telecommunications.

  • These computers are built solely by Apple and have relatively high cost compared to Windows-powered and Linux-based computers;
  • Information and Communication Technology Information and communication technology ICT concerns the elements and techniques related to manipulating and transmitting information, specifically, computers, the Internet, and telecommunications;
  • Smartphones are cellular phones that performs many of the functions of a computer, typically having a touchscreen interface, Internet access, and an operating system capable of running downloaded applications;
  • Most current mobile devices contain wireless communication capabilities.

This concept is dynamic and shows rapid growth and evolution. According to Atzori [ 13 ], the basic idea of IoT is the pervasive presence around us of a variety of things or objects—such as tags, sensors, actuators, and mobile phones—that are able to interact with one another and cooperate with their neighbors to achieve common goals.

The main strength of the IoT is the large impact it will have on several aspects of everyday life including the behavior of potential users.

They can perform intelligent operations and are capable of communicating to jointly deliver a service to the user [ 14 ]. Presently, this concept includes a very large number of devices-smartphones, PDAs, MP3 players, and laptops. Most current mobile devices contain wireless communication capabilities.

The common characteristics of mobile devices are their small size, portability, processing capability, network connection, and limited memory.

Background

Specifically, smartphones and small tablets allow access to a large number of apps mobile-based software. Additionally, they can be incorporated into daily activities in a nonintrusive way. The use of mobile devices is increasing continuously. The tablet market also did very well in the past year.

Conversely, the personal computer PC industry continued to struggle in 2012.