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Kurt lewin lawton nahemow environmental press theory

Over the past century, emphases on person and environment aspect of human behavior have been developed by social scientists. That is, behavior is a a function of the person and environment.

Based on the ecological equation, Lawton and Nahemow 1973 found that a graphic schema is convenient to illustrate relationship between person and environment see Fig.

The range of competency is from low to high. Poor physical health, age-related sensory losses, mental health problem and so on result in lowered competency. The strength of press is varied in positive, neutral or negative ways.

  • The person—environment perspective in ageing research, frequently coined environmental gerontology, draws upon the idea that old age is a period of adult;
  • First, less severe environmental press is needed compared to the environment of original tenants;
  • The idea of pe is grounded in kurt lewin's maxim person-environment fit;
  • If an individual is exposed to a low level of press, it causes a feeling of boredom, lassitude, deprivation, and a low demand to master the normal environment;
  • Field theory in social science:

The shaded areas in Figure 1 are adaptation levels that are given by competence reacting to environmental press. This is obtained by everyday activities without awareness of the environment.

However, it is possible that there are maladaptive behaviors or negative emotional states, if an individual is exposed to a high level of press.

For example, if a woman is a wheelchair user, her competence is low so a kitchen designed for able-bodied people causes high pressure. To adapt her environment, she needs to modify her kitchen. If not, the environment leads her to maladaptation and the kitchen environment will change her behavioral patterns such as eating habits.

  1. Aging well and the environment. Lawton, m powell , and l nahemow lewin, kurt 1951 field theory in social science social role identities among older adults in a continuing care.
  2. Intersection of participation and environmental factors.
  3. Moreover, when someone is exposed to a low level of environmental press, their competence level will decrease. Theoretical foundations for the measurement of environmental factors kurt lewin and his environmental psychologists lawton and nahemow sought to.
  4. The importance of transportation and prioritization of environmental needs to sustain well environment and aging.

To be more specific, she prefers to eat already cooked food such as donuts or hamburgers rather than food prepared by herself due to the environmental press of her kitchen. If an individual is exposed to a low level of press, it causes a feeling of boredom, lassitude, deprivation, and a low demand to master the normal environment. Moreover, when someone is exposed to a low level of environmental press, their competence level will decrease.

Thus, a limited level of press within any given adaptation level is required to maintain comparatively healthy status. The elderly are more likely to have low competence for their environment so they need to increase their competence by adjusting the environment to adapt their level of competence according to Press-competence model.

The characteristics of accommodating environment are the following. First, less severe environmental press is needed compared to the environment of original tenants.

Second, mental and physical health starts to necessitate higher-intensity services; congregate meals, house-keeping services or on-site medical services might be needed.

Last, spatial and structural demands increase for additional services such as wheelchair use or modification of bathroom. As mentioned above, the Press-Competence Model can be applied to meet the needs of residents for their environment in both congregate housing and housing for independent living. To be more specific, congregate meals, house-keeping services or on-site medical services will be provide for residents with low competence level in congregate housing.

In the aspects of housing for independent living, home modification will be offered to meet the needs of the elderly to age in place through reducing environmental press. According to Lawton 1082the most common home modification examples to help the elderly age in place are the following: The majority of the elderly felt that home modifications mentioned above would help them to stay at home for a long time.

An ecological theory of aging applied to elderly housing.

Kurt lewin lawton nahemow environmental press theory

Environment and Aging, 31 18-10. Competence, environmental press, and the adaptation of older people. Three functions of the residential environment. Journal of Housing for the Elderly, 5 135-50.

An ecological theory of adaptive behavior and aging. Advancements in the home modification field: A tribute to M.