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Identify 3 different computer crimes that you are aware of

Department of Justice DOJin its manual on computer crime, defines such crime as "any violations of criminal law that involve a knowledge of computer technology for their perpetration, investigation, or prosecution. In its elaborations on the subject, DOJ divides computer crime into three categories: Broad Focus The first category is part of computer crime no doubt because computers are still surrounded by a halo of novelty.

  • As for motives, there could be several, but the most common are pretty simple and can be explained by a human tendancy such as greed, fame, power, etc;
  • This causes the resource e.

In the course of time, the theft of computers or software will no more be remarked upon than the theft of groceries or horses e. The rapid spread of computers and computer systems, interconnected by wired or wireless means, has opened a new field in which criminals could operate. But all the crimes covered by the third category existed before computers. Narrow Focus The second of DOJ's categories is the one most people associate with computer crime and also with "computer annoyance" in the form of "spam.

The first virus, known as Elk Clone, was written by Rich Skrenta as a boy in the 9th grade around 1982. The virus resided on an Apple II disk and, on the 50th booting of the computer with that disk, displayed a little poem, entitled "Elk Cloner: Viruses have differentiated into other categories. Major forms and definitions are listed below as outlined by Ryan P. Wallace and associates writing in American Criminal Law Review: These are programs that modify other computer programs so that they carry out functions intended by the creator of the virus.

The Melissa Virus, for example March 1999disrupted e-mail service around the world. Worms have the functionality of viruses but spread by human action by way of the Internet hitch-hiking on mail. As their name implies, these intruders pretend to be innocent programs. Users are persuaded to install something innocent-seeming on their computer. The Trojan horse then activates a more destructive program embedded in the innocent code.

Are destructive programs activated by some event or a specific date or time. Elk Cloner fit this category because it activated its message on the 50th booting of a disk. The same concept is used legally by companies that distribute time-limited samples of their software.

The software disables itself after the passage, say, of 30 or 60 days. These are legitimate programs used to monitor and analyze networks. They can be deployed in a criminal fashion to steal passwords, credit card information, identities, or to spy on network activity.

Distributed denial of service attacks. Such attacks are directed at Web sites by illegitimately causing multiple computers to send barrages of connection requests to the target site, thus causing it to crash. The "Hacker" The term "hacker" came to be applied to computer hobbyists who spent their spare time creating video games and other basic computer programs.

The term acquired negative connotations in the 1980s when computer experts illegally accessed several high-profile databanks. Access to systems by telephone linkage from any computer increased such attacks.

Over time, the "hacker" label came to be applied to programmers and disseminators of viruses. The public perception of hackers continues to be that of a lone expert with a taste for mischief. But "hacking" has come to encompass a wide range of computer crimes motivated by financial gain.

Indeed, the vital information kept in computers has made them a target for corporate espionage, fraud, and embezzlement efforts. With the growing sophistication in computer security programs and law-enforcement efforts has come the insight that many apparent "hacker" attacks come from well-informed insiders intent on spoil or, occasionally, on vengeance. Spam Since the spread of the Internet, "spam" has acquired the meaning of "unsolicited e-mail. It became effective in December of 2003 and took effect on January 1, 2004.

The Act requires that senders of unsolicited commercial e-mail label their messages, but Congress did not require a standard labeling language. Such messages are required to carry instructions on how to opt-out of receiving such mail; the sender must also provide its actual physical address. Misleading headers and titles are prohibited. Congress authorized the Federal Trade Commission to establish a "do-not-mail" registry but did not require that FTC do so.

Since 2003 other bills have been proposed but have not been enacted. Code, Title 18, No. According to Ryan P. Small businesses were well-represented in the identify 3 different computer crimes that you are aware of Responding organizations experienced 2. Half of the respondents had 1 to 4 incidents, 19 percent had 20 or more incidents, the rest fell in between. Large organizations tended to have the most incidents.

As already stated, slightly over 64 percent experienced financial losses. The FBI extrapolated this result to the nation as a whole but intentionally made its assumptions conservative. The agency assumed that only 20 percent of a total population of 13 million companies would have experienced losses rather than 64 percent, as in its sample.


The downward shift was in part based on the likelihood that respondents to the FBI survey may have done so because they were more aware of problems through experience. But the FBI also recognized that actual victimization rate may have been much higher than the 20 percent assumed. It is both a smaller and a larger survey than the FBI survey summarized above in that it looks at fewer but larger organizations. In 2005 CSI surveyed 699 organizations; these included governmental entities and universities as well as businesses; only 20 percent of survey respondents were organizations in the 1 to 99 employee category.

CSI made no attempt to extrapolate its loss figure to the nation as a whole. These three categories accounted for 80. Only 20 percent of respondents reported incidents to law-enforcement agencies, an all-time low level already reached in 2004. The principal reasons given for not reporting incidents was that such information, reaching the public, would hurt stock price or aid competitors.

Based on the survey results, "inside jobs" are as frequent as attacks by hackers or criminals from the outside. An outsider may have a lot of motive and a degree of knowledge depending on the internal security of the network but an insider is likely to have all three.

  • Access to systems by telephone linkage from any computer increased such attacks;
  • Peer-to-peer networks move away from the dedicated server;
  • Cause a tremendous amount of damage by shutting down parts of the Internet, wreaking havoc on an internal network and costing companies enormous amounts of lost revenue.

It is a matter of some concern that, instead of dealing with such issues, most companies appear to want to sweep them under the carpet.

The field includes the protection of electronic funds transfers, proprietary information product designs, client lists, etc. It can be difficult to place a dollar value on these assets, especially when such factors as potential loss of reputation or liability issues are considered. In some cases e. The question most companies face is not whether to practice computer security measures but how much time and effort to invest.

Fortunately, companies looking to protect themselves from computer crime can choose from a broad range of security options. Some of these measures are specifically designed to counter internal threats, while others are shaped to stop outside dangers.

Some are relatively inexpensive to put in place, while others require significant outlays of money. But many security experts believe that the single greatest defense that any business can bring to bear is simply a mindset in which issues of security are of paramount concern. Protection from Internal Threats Whereas big corporations typically have entire departments devoted to computer system management, small businesses often do not have such a luxury. Notify employees that their use of the company's personal computers, computer networks, and Internet connections will be monitored.

Physical access to computers can be limited in various ways, including imposition of passwords; magnetic card readers; and biometrics, which verify the user's identity through matching patterns in hand geometry, signature or keystroke dynamics, neural networks the pattern of nerves in the faceDNA fingerprinting, retinal imaging, or voice recognition. More traditional site control methods such as sign-in logs and security badges can also be useful.

Classify information based on its importance, assigning security clearances to employees as needed. Eliminate nonessential modems that could be used to transmit information. Monitor activities of employees who keep non-traditional hours at the office.

Common threats to be aware of

Make certain that the company's hiring process includes extensive background checks, especially in cases where the employee would be handling sensitive information. Stress the importance of confidential passwords to employees.

Peer-to-Peer Cyber Crimes

Protection from External Threats Small businesses also need to protect their systems against outside attack. Firewalls may be expensive but may be worth the cost. The single greatest scourge from the outside are viruses of one kind or another. Business owners can do much to minimize this threat by heeding the following basic steps: Install and use anti-virus software programs that scan PCs, computer networks, CD-ROMs, tape drives, diskettes, and Internet material, and destroy viruses when found.

Update anti-virus programs on a regular basis. Ensure that all individual computers are equipped with anti-virus programs.

Top 5 Popular Cybercrimes: How You Can Easily Prevent Them

Forbid employees from putting programs on their office computers without company approval. Make sure that the company has a regular policy of backing up copying important files and storing them in a safe place, so that the impact of corrupted files is minimized. Having a source of clean i. A variety of sources exist to assist small business owners with virus protection and Internet security measures.

For example, several Web sites provide free virus warnings and downloadable antivirus patches for Web browsers, including www. The Computer Security Institute provides annual surveys on security breaches at www. Another useful resource is the National Computer Security Association www. Small businesses seeking to establish Internet security policies and procedures might begin by contacting CERT. The CERT web site www. Small business owners who contact CERT about a security problem will be asked to provide their company's Internet address, the computer models affected, the types of operating systems and software used, and the security measures that were in place.

Common-sense measures such as supervising entrances and locking up easily transported equipment at night are obvious enough. Many laptops are lost to thieves-of-opportunity who, standing in an unattended lobby, see a laptop on a desk while distantly laughter sounds from an office birthday party. Business travelers, of course, must keep a close eye on their notebook and laptop computers.

The allure of portables is so great that thieves sometimes work in teams to get their hands on them.