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Geographic major and minor faults of pakistan

Abstract The 2010 Pakistan flood affected 20 million people. The impact of the event and recovery is measured at 6 months.

List of faults in Pakistan

Cross-sectional cluster survey of 1769 households conducted six months post-flood in 29 most-affected districts. The outcome measures were physical damage, flood-related death and illness and changes in income, access to electricity, clean water and sanitation facilities. Households were headed by males, large and poor.

  1. The sparse population ekes a living out of the few mountain valleys where water can be found.
  2. The intensity distribution estimated and interpreted by the Pakistan Geological Survey is closely associated with the rupture zone. Significant differences were noted between urban and rural as well as gender and education of the head of houshold.
  3. Many hospitals in the region also suffered severe damage or collapsed. Damage to suspension bridges ranged from shearing of the tower foundation to complete collapse of the towers.

The flood destroyed 54. Lack of electricity increased from 18. Access to protected water remained unchanged 96. Immediate deaths and injuries were uncommon but 77. Significant differences were noted between urban and rural as well as gender and education of the head of houshold. After 6 months, much of the population had not recovered their prior standard of living or access to services.

Rural households were more commonly impacted and slower to recover. Targeting relief to high-risk populations including rural, female-headed and those with lower education is needed. The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Introduction Natural disasters interfere with economy and destroy infrastructure, resulting in a disruption of livelihoods, normal services and health care. Floods can be particularly disruptive, leading to widespread collapse of infrastructure.

They are the leading cause of deaths from natural disaster worldwide, with 6.

  1. The government of Pakistan has struggled to meet the challenge posed by the democratic structure of its constitution. Major damage concentrations in Muzaffarabad were in areas of deeper alluvialdeposits along the Neelum and Jhelum rivers.
  2. Other sensitivities regarding debris removal include bodies and people's possessions still buried under the rubble and an unwillingness to part with potentially useful scrap. About 55 percent of the land area is arable and can be used for farming, but flooding causes serious damage to cropland by eroding soil and washing away seeds or crops.
  3. To establish a presence in the north, near Kashmir, the capital was moved to Islamabad in 1960.
  4. Almost all households 91. The Indus River Valley and the Punjab are the dominant core areas where most of the people live and where population densities are remarkably high.
  5. If a household was not eligible or not inhabited at the time of the survey, the next closest household was approached. Both Pakistan and Bangladesh have large populations that are increasing rapidly.

The impact on the rural economy, including agriculture crops, livestock, animal sheds, personal seed stocks, fertilizers, agricultural machinery, fisheries and forestry, was unprecedented. The purpose of this study is to characterize the impact of the 2010 floods on the Pakistani people after six months of humanitarian interventions and the variables that affect recovery. This study explores how predictors such as education, income, family size, and rural versus urban location factor in to flood impact.

Furthermore, change in income level and disruption of services e. Methods A cross-sectional cluster survey of heads of households affected by the 2010 floods in Pakistan was conducted in January 2011. The survey was focused on these priority districts.

There were 80 clusters of 20 households each, with an additional oversample of 10 clusters in camp-based populations. Clusters were chosen based on the proportion of the affected population within provinces and again at the district level. Randomly generated GIS coordinates were then chosen as starting points for each cluster within the most severely-affected tehsils counties or union councils sub-counties. The ten camp-based clusters were added to account for the difficulty of randomly selecting these small geographic areas.

These ten clusters were distributed on a population proportional basis from an official list of current camps and the size of their registered populations. A household was defined as a group of people that live in the same living quarters and share meals, regardless of biological relation. The first household in each cluster was identified as the nearest to the GIS point. In rural areas the next nearest house was chosen until all 20 households were surveyed.

In urban and camp settings with dense populations, each 5th house was sampled. If a household was not eligible or not inhabited at the time of the survey, the next closest household was approached. Changes to income level and access to services such as electricity, protected water sources, and toilet facilities were the primary outcome variables of interest. Descriptive statistics and summary measures for each group were calculated, and comparisons were drawn using standard tests chi square for geographic major and minor faults of pakistan significance.

Voluntary informed consent was sought from all survey participants. Results Pre-Flood Living Conditions A total of 1,769 households were included, representing 14,506 people with 87.

The demographics of the households in our survey closely matched national Pakistani statistics.

The Kashmir earthquake of October 8, 2005: Impacts in Pakistan

The head of household HOH was a male in 96. Household members were more likely to have completed at least primary school education than the HOH 54. Urban populations were more likely to earn less than 5,000 Rupees per month 31. Mud brick was the most common material for the walls 79. Prior to the floods, electricity was available to 81. Almost all households 91.

Impact of the Flooding Physical damage from the floods was widespread, with 54. The average household size did not change after the floods in either the rural 7. The floods also caused 86. At some point during the six months since the flood, 46. Migration from the home district to a different geographic location was less common 12.

At the time of the survey, 51. Table 1 assesses infrastructure by comparing access to utilities for rural and urban household pre- and post-flood. At the time of the survey, the number of households with no access to electricity had increased from 18. Lack of electricity doubled in both urban and rural areas. The percent of households who did not have access to any toilet facilities increased from 29.

The access to protected water after the floods remained unchanged 96.