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Effect of liquid tumeric extract on carcass production

Impacts of neem extract treatments on growth indices suggested that Neem extract favored growth with final body weight range of 2447 and 2620g. Organ weights showed no deviation from standard values for healthy broiler birds.

Background

Hematology and serum biochemistry values were in conformity with standards for healthy broiler birds. Birds on 3g of Neem extract in their drinking water out performed birds in other treatments in assessed growth rate indices. We therefore conclude that 3g of Neem extract in their drinking water growing broiler birds encourages healthy growth and may serve as supplements for antibiotics, especially when birds are raised in areas with minimal access to veterinary service.

Introduction The production of healthy birds with quality meat and eggs without harmful residues, within a short time interval is the major concern to modern poultry farmers. The use of synthetic drugs as antibiotics and growth promoters has high cost implications, and sometimes, with attending adverse side effect on birds health, prolonged withdrawal period and risk of accumulation in tissues and egg which could have harmful effects on human health Jawad et al.

As a result, consumers of poultry products are demanding for drug residues free meat and egg. This has triggered the search for alternatives means to produce birds at reduced cost using natural growth and health promoters. In Nigeria, a good number of different herbs and plants parts ranging from leaves meal and extracts, seeds, fruits and tree backs have been used in researches as alternatives to the conventional feeds, feedstuff, growth promoters and antibiotics.

  1. Increasing the protein deposit in meat will be used for growth and not to increase the percentage of meat protein.
  2. Neem Azadirachta Indica popularly known in Nigeria as Dogonyaro is a fast growing indigenous tropical tree that thrives well in all parts of Nigeria even in poor shallow, stony or sandy soils where agriculture crops give low yield Ogbuewu et al. Turmeric, Antioxidant activity, Phytogenics, Growth promoter, Carcass traits, Broiler Background In veterinary medicine, there exists a practice of sub-therapeutic use of antimicrobial growth promoters AGP as disease preventive in livestock [ 1 , 2 ].
  3. The presence of this curcumin antibacteria characteristic is expected to have the same function as an antibiotic characteristic in inhibiting pathogenic bacteria in the small intestine, which will then result in better broiler growth. European Union EU had most of the antimicrobial growth promoters banned in 1999 with a strict implementation of the ban from January 2006 onwards [ 3 ].

In some recent researches, Aspilia Africana, flamboyant seeds, bitter kola, Amarathus cruentus, Mucuna utilis, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa and Cinnamomum zylenicum and host of others have been successfully used as supplement to enhance the health and performance of livestock particularly monogastric animals including poultry Obun and Ayanwale 2008; Egena et al.

Neem Azadirachta Indica popularly known in Nigeria as Dogonyaro is a fast growing indigenous tropical tree that thrives well in all parts of Nigeria even in poor shallow, stony or sandy soils where agriculture crops give low yield Ogbuewu et al.

Neem tree is a widely researched tree that has attracted world-wide recognition due to its vast range of medicinal potentials like antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, Antiprotozoal, Hepatoprotective Kale et al.

  • The, neem extracts was prepared on daily basis;
  • Linder 1992 added that body fat also came from the conversion of excess glucose;
  • Besides, curcuminoids and turmerones were also known to be gastroprotective and anti-inflammatory agents.

Various other properties have been documented in respect of its many bioactive components Akpan et al. The use of neem leaf meal is limited due to the presence of the bioactive compounds Azadirachtin, limonoids and tannin that have deleterious effect on nutrient utilization Lale 2002.

  • Sundari 2014 explained that by giving turmeric extract, it would increase the nutrient absorption capacity, including protein, in the small intestine;
  • The higher dry matter content of meat had automatically increased other nutrients value of the meat;
  • Soy bean oil Refined and free from artificial antioxidants was purchased from Arma for food industry Co;
  • Vital organs Gizzards, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, crop and heart of the slaughtered birds were weighed using electronic weighing machine and records were taken for organ weight determination;
  • The slaughter weight of broilers given liquid turmeric extract and positive control T1 were relatively higher compared to those of broilers in the negative control treatment T2 , which was only given plain drinking water.

Also the high fiber content in neem leaf meal poses serious intake and digestibility problems in poultry diets Udedibie and Opara 1998. Therefore the use of leaf extracts could overcome this barrier towards tapping the good nutritional characteristics of Neem leaf meal. The leaves extract contain nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetylnimbiene, nimbandol, nimbolide and quercetin Miltra et al.

Other medicinal properties of Azadirachta indica neem documented include; anti-inflammatory, anti-gastric ulcer, anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, diuretic, anti-helminthic, Immunomodulatory effect and performance in broilers Biswas et al. The need to explore neems potential as feed additive is further intensified by seriously criticism of the use of antibiotic growth promoters AGP in the poultry industry, because of the development of microbial resistance to these products and the potential harmful effects on human health as residues left in meat and egg Padalwar 1994.

The use of this medicinal plant as feed addictive in the diet of broilers chicken, with the objectives of improving growth performance and hematological characteristics has not been fully addressed. Growth performances and blood profiles are important indices of physiological state of animals Khan and Zafer 2005. Serum biochemistry and hematological features have attracted many workers in order to make clinical predictions of the health status in animals, birds and even humans.

The blood picture varies with certain conditions such as stress, infections and toxicity and blood constituents provide valuable media for clinical investigations and nutritional evaluation Aderemi 2004; Khan and Zafer 2005. Majority of medicinal plants do not have residual effects Tipu et al. For the fact that whatever an animal ingests be it in solid or liquid form must report in the blood profile, then blood profile evaluation is important in order to carryout clinical investigations of the health status of the animals or birds.

We evaluate the Effect that neem leaf extract on growth, haematology and biochemical profiles and organs weight of broiler chickens to justify its inclusion in the diet of growing broiler chickens.

  • Thus, the regulations have imposed a great need for the development and adoption of newer and safer practices for growth promotion and disease prevention in livestock as natural growth promoters or non-antibiotic growth promoters NGPs;
  • Furthermore, the use of natural dyes offers no disposal problems Kumar and Sinha, 2004;
  • The panel consisted of ten members from our laboratory and scores were obtained as described by Wierbicki 1985 by rating the above quality characteristics using the following rating scale;
  • Rahayu Residu oksitetrasiklin dan aktivitas antibakterinya dalam telur dari ayam yang diberi oksitetrasiklin dengan dosis terapeutik lewat air minum;
  • Statistical Analysis The obtained data were exposed to analysis of variance.

Materials and methods Experimental site This experiment was conducted at the poultry unit of the teaching and research farm of Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State of Nigeria.

Wilberforce Island is situated within the rainforest zone, with a humid equatorial climate with mean annual rainfall ranging from 2000mm to 4000mm, an average temperature of 30oC and relative humidity between 55 to 90percent. Experimental birds A total of one hundred and twenty 120 day old chicks Cuphon chicks were bought from De-right Hatchery in Ibadan Oyo state of Nigeria.

On arrival, the chicks were counted, de-boxed, weighed and administered Intra Ocula I. O vaccine and anti-stress vitalyte. The chicks were brooded and acclimatized for three 3 weeks, during which they were fed with commercial chick starter feed and cool clean drinking water. Experimental design At arrival of the birds, they were housed in the brooding house that had been prepared by cleaning, washing and disinfecting.

Brooders were set up in good working condition.

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The floor was well littered with wood shavings and the walls covered with dark water-proof materials. At the completion of the brooding period, the birds were divided into four 4 major groups tagged T1, T2, T3 and T4 of thirty 30 birds each. Each treatment T group was further subdivided into 3 replicates, tagged R1 R2 and R3 of ten 10 birds per replicate, in a completely randomized design CRD.

Treatments 2, 3 and 4 T2, T3 and T4 were administered neem extracts NE at different concentrations of 3g, 4g and 5g per liter of water respectively. Collection of neem leaves and preparation of fresh neem extract Mature disease free neem leaves were collected from Aven Community in Patani Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.

For every quantity of drinking water measured, one 1 litre of neem extract was added and administered to the birds for eight 8 consecutive weeks. The, neem extracts was prepared on daily basis. Data collection and recording At the end of the experimental period, three 3 birds per treatment were randomly selected and bled by severing the jugular vein. The blood samples were collected in labeled lithium heparin bottle and were taken to the laboratory for blood profile evaluation.

Vital organs Gizzards, lungs, liver, spleen, kidney, proventriculus, crop and heart of the slaughtered birds were weighed using electronic weighing machine and records were taken for organ weight determination.

Results We evaluate the Effect that neem leaf extract on growth, haematology and biochemical profiles and organs weight of broiler chickens to justify its inclusion in the diet of growing broiler chickens. Impacts of neem extract treatments on growth indices Table 1 suggests that Neem extract favored healthy and positive growth rate with a significantly different final body weight range between 2447 and 2620g, total weight gain and weekly weight gain.

  1. The leaves extract contain nimbin, nimbinene, 6-desacetylnimbiene, nimbandol, nimbolide and quercetin Miltra et al.
  2. Also the high fiber content in neem leaf meal poses serious intake and digestibility problems in poultry diets Udedibie and Opara 1998.
  3. Seven treatments were replicated 3 times consisted of 4 broiler chickens for each replication. Collection of neem leaves and preparation of fresh neem extract Mature disease free neem leaves were collected from Aven Community in Patani Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria.
  4. Birds on 3g of Neem extract in their drinking water out performed birds in other treatments in assessed growth rate indices. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have confirmed the safety and efficacy of phytogenics in animal nutrition.
  5. At the completion of the brooding period, the birds were divided into four 4 major groups tagged T1, T2, T3 and T4 of thirty 30 birds each. Color is important in consumer perception of food and it is often associated with a specific flavour and intensity of flavor.

Growth performance of broiler chickens administered Azadirachta indica extract.