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Contribute to the effective governance of an organisation

Printable page generated Saturday, 29 Sep 2018, 00: Project governance may be highly formalised, within the organisational governance, for large projects, or programmes or portfolios of projects. In smaller organisations, perhaps with less complex projects, some of the governance and support for the project may be undertaken by the project manager themselves. Whatever the context, the roles and responsibilities for project governance need to be clear and appropriate for the project and the organisation.

You may also be interested in the OpenLearn course Managing virtual project teamswhich looks particularly at leadership and communication in project team which are not collocated. Learning outcomes After studying this course, you should be able to: The set of policies, regulations, functions, processes, and procedures and responsibilities that define the establishment, management and control of projects, programmes or portfolios.

Where this is appropriate for the type of project, and the organisation, it is not necessary to have all the aspects of governance that are discussed in this section. Figure 1 illustrates good governance as explained by Murray 2011. He gives five elements, based on project governance or project management governance, with emphasis on alignment to organisational objectives as a central aspect of good governance.

With this contribution clearly stated then the project context is clear and governance of the project can ensure that the project is focused on the outcome rather than activities.

Course Title: Contribute to effective governance in the community sector

The golden thread of delegated authority is a direct chain of accountability. Within this chain each person needs to know what their authority is and what needs to be referred to a higher level of authority within the chain. Reporting — those to whom responsibilities have been delegated should periodically report on progress.

In addition to period reporting, additional reports need to be made if the person with delegated responsibility is unable to fulfil that responsibility, or if conflicts of interest arise. Independent assurance is a counterbalance to self-reporting, and is an independent check of the structures and processes to review whether the objectives will be met. The strategic management of an organisation identifies and implements the long-term goals of that organisation.

Project governance and Project Management Office (PMO)

Therefore the organisation, at the strategic level, typically needs to establish the governance structures for the management of projects. Organisations have corporate governance, of which project governance is a subset.

Effective Governance Design: 6 Questions to Get You Started

Project management incorporates those aspects of project governance that are at the project level, as well as managing the detail of the project. The APM identifies the following ways in which good governance can be demonstrated: The adoption of a disciplined life cycle governance that includes approval gates at which viability is reviewed and approved.

Recording and communicating decisions made at approval gates. Establishing clearly defined roles, responsibilities and performance criteria for governance. Developing coherent and supportive relationships between business strategy and projects. Procedures that allow a management board to call for an independent scrutiny of projects. Fostering a culture of improvement and frank disclosure of project information.

Giving members of delegated bodies the capability and resources to make appropriate decisions. Ensuring that business cases are supported by information that allows reliable decision making. Ensuring that stakeholders are engaged at a level that reflects their importance to the organisation and in a way that fosters trust. The deployment of suitably qualified and experienced people. Ensuring that project management adds value. Adapted from APM, 2012a, pp. The list is applicable for any context and any size of project, and other factors may be important for specific projects and specific contexts.

A key factor is the role of the host organisation and the senior management. Organisations that are less oriented to projects may leave more of the project governance to the project team, which is acceptable provided this is agreed by the project sponsor. The project sponsor also needs to ensure that the agreed governance processes are being followed and this scrutiny should be carried out by someone external to the project team. The APM also emphasises the importance of the relationship between the project sponsor and the project manager APM, 2012a.

Good inter-personal skills are needed, together with clarity about responsibilities. The project sponsor is accountable for the achievement of the project objectives as specified in the business case, and providing senior management level support for the project. The project manager is responsible for the daily management of the project. The appropriate choice of a project management approach or method can support the governance of projects by defining the structure for the management of the project, including options for customising or adapting the approach or method for the particular project.

The project board may be for that specific project, or a board may look after a group of projects in the organisation. Such a group of projects might be a programme or a group of individual projects. For a smaller project, the sponsor may undertake all the responsibilities for that project. For a larger project, the responsibilities may rest with a project board of which the project sponsor may be contribute to the effective governance of an organisation chair.

In an organisation without the infrastructure to support projects, the governance may be undertaken by the project manager who would then be directly responsible to the organisational management. However, in a large, project-oriented organisation, the project board sits between any projects and the organisational senior management.

Adapted from ISO 21500, p. Senior management can be grouped together, but in Figure 2 the Corporate management stakeholders, who are part of the project and organisational infrastructure, are shown separately outside the system boundary of the project, although it may be appropriate to represent them inside the boundary, depending on structures within a particular organisation.

The project sponsor is part of the project board or project steering committee. Following the definition of roles within ISO 21500: The project sponsor authorises the project, makes executive decisions, and solves problems and conflicts beyond the authority of the project manager. The project board contributes to the project by providing senior level guidance to the project. The suppliers may be external to the organisation, or may be internal managers of the resources needed contribute to the effective governance of an organisation the project.

Senior users would usually be the customer, or representing views of the customer, whether this is an internal customer or an external customer.

  1. With this contribution clearly stated then the project context is clear and governance of the project can ensure that the project is focused on the outcome rather than activities.
  2. To encourage the sharing of good practice between the PMO and project managers, project managers work for a period of two to six months within the PMO at least once every three years. The project sponsor is accountable for the achievement of the project objectives as specified in the business case, and providing senior management level support for the project.
  3. For a smaller project, the sponsor may undertake all the responsibilities for that project. Disadvantages might relate to.

This is an example of governance applied across organisational boundaries and it can facilitate formal mapping of roles such as technical specialists communicating directly with each from different areas. The project sponsor is the individual who has responsibility for ensuring that: The monitoring may be by the project sponsor themselves, or by someone to whom the authority has been delegated.

If delegated, this should be to someone who is external to the project. In Crawford et al. This research is interesting because it builds on the recognition that the sponsor can be crucial to the success of a project, and it investigated the role of the sponsor and the connection between the sponsor and governance of projects.

S49 The sponsor both ensures that governance requirements are met and provides support to the project.

  • Are you falling victim to process supremacy?
  • How are support services provided within your own organisation?
  • The set of policies, regulations, functions, processes, and procedures and responsibilities that define the establishment, management and control of projects, programmes or portfolios;
  • The set of policies, regulations, functions, processes, and procedures and responsibilities that define the establishment, management and control of projects, programmes or portfolios;
  • PMO relationships with the project manager, the project and the organisation are discussed later;
  • Such a group of projects might be a programme or a group of individual projects.

To identify which quadrant is applicable for a particular project the perspectives of the organisation and the project need to be considered. Figure 3 shows a conceptual framework for examining the two perspectives in the context of the project sponsorship.

The role of project sponsor is ongoing, and continued engagement with the project is likely to be essential. However, what that engagement needs to be will vary between projects, and is also likely to vary over the life cycle of a single project. The primary responsibility of the sponsor, to ensure that the project objectives are set within the business case, should not be lost in the other considerations addressed by this conceptual framework.

Adapted from Crawford et al. For longer projects this becomes more likely, and may arise from change of staff within the organisation, or even where the strategic priority attached to a project changes so that the sponsor also changes. A Practical Guide to Effective Project Decision Making Garland, 2009but the communication of governance arrangements is not included. Nor is communication specifically identified in the APM list of how good governance is demonstrated.

In the context of governance, the communication skills of the project sponsor and the project manager need to be very effective. Good communication can help to reduce conflict in many contexts, and clear governance policies enable communication of problems and concerns in a formal and constructive way. The route for escalation is made clear in the governance, so that problems can correctly be communicated upwards. To communicate upwards may mean through the project manager to the project sponsor or project board, or to external functions within the organisation.

Activity 1 How is project governance communicated and implemented in the projects you work on? Is the route for communicating upwards clear to you, whether within the project, or between the project manager and the project sponsor?

If your study has introduced you to new ideas about governance can you suggest principles that your organisation or your project need to consider to improve the governance of projects? Might you be able to discuss this with work colleagues? Discussion In this section of this course, communication of governance arrangements is last but this may be the section that is most relevant to this activity. How easily you were able to address the first part of the activity probably depends on how well governance arrangements are communicated, and you need to have been able to do this before you could consider the final question in the activity.

Communication is a topic that is contribute to the effective governance of an organisation throughout project management. This structure then supports the temporary structure of each project that is undertaken. In an organisation that has portfolios and programmes, the permanent structure will usually support all the projects, programmes and portfolios.

This section considers the support structure, i. Infrastructure provides support for programmes, portfolios and projects, and is the focal point for the development and maintenance of P3 management within an organisation. A Project Management Office PMO is a management structure that standardises the project-related governance processes and facilitates the sharing of resources, methodologies, tools, and techniques.

The responsibilities of a PMO can range from providing project management support functions to actually being responsible for the direct management of one or more projects.

Part B: Course Detail

This section gives generic classifications to define the main aspects of the role and to discuss the possible variations in structure, approaches and responsibilities. A Centre of Excellence is organisation-wide and has a much broader remit as the name suggests. In larger, more mature organisations, the PMO has grown as a separate body from the management of the project. It can be a career path in itself or it can be an opportunity for a project manager to bring their own experience into a PMO at the same time as refreshing their own skills.

Routine administration is required on all projects, programmes and portfolios. On small projects this may be performed by the project manager, possibly supported by a deputy project manager, but on medium to large projects and all programmes and portfolios, a project manager and the programme and portfolio manager needs support in handling day-to-day administration.

There may also be a need for specialist knowledge, for example, in risk, quality or finance. These skills may be beyond the skills of the project manager, especially early in their career, and may therefore need to be resourced from elsewhere, either inside or outside of the organisation. Additional support for the project manager may be available from the operational functions of an organisation, for example in finance or procurement. Alternatively, a support office may be set up for the specific project and then disbanded when that project is completed.