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Conclusions on academic procrastination among physical education

The Examination of Relationships between Academic Self-Efficacy, Academic Procrastination, and Locus of Academic Control of Athletes in Different Sports ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to examine locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy of athletes participating in university sports games in terms of academic achievement, sport branches, and gender.

Moreover, it is aimed to reveal the relationship among locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. The average age of athletes is 21. In the analysis of the data, since the data showed normal distribution, a t-test was used for paired comparison; and the Pearson correlation coefficient was used for examining the relationship among variables. There is a statistically significant difference between external locus of academic control and academic procrastination in terms of the gender of the athletes.

The academic achievement of the athletes is significantly different from their academic self-efficacy, locus conclusions on academic procrastination among physical education control academic external and internal, and academic procrastination.

External locus of academic control is significantly different in terms of participating on a team or individually. Significant relationships have been found among external and internal locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. When external locus of academic control in athletes increases, academic procrastination levels within them increases. When internal locus of academic control in athletes increases, the self-efficacy level within them increases.

It is found that male athletes have higher scores on external locus of academic control and academic procrastination than female athletes. Athletes with high academic success have better internal locus of academic control and academic self-efficacy scores. Athletes participation on team sports have higher external locus of academic control scores than individual athletes. Locus of academic control, academic procrastination, academic self-efficacy, athletes.

However, it is important to fulfill these tasks and responsibilities within a certain amount of time.

In literature, procrastination behavior is defined as lack of self-regulation skill, intention to hinder and completely avoid an activity voluntarily 60. This condition generally results in students studying for exams less than they plan, accordingly they do not satisfy their lessons and get low scores 59. In related studies, it was found that academic procrastination behaviors correlated with forgetting project delivery time, delaying to prepare for exams, and low academic success 11, 16, 34, 42, 65.

  1. Academic self-efficacy is defined as the beliefs of students to their abilities for successfully completing an academic task 72. Data Collection The data was collected by researchers.
  2. With this, it can be said that athletes participation in team sports have a more active social life and benefit from the opportunities to spend time with their friends when compared to individual athletes.
  3. Moreover, it is aimed to reveal the relationship among locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy. Moreover, it is important to conduct studies related to having academic procrastination decreased and having internal locus of control and academic self-efficacy increase.
  4. A Thesis University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
  5. Academic self-efficacy is defined as the beliefs of students to their abilities for successfully completing an academic task 72.

In other research, academic procrastination correlated with communication understanding, non-effective learning strategies, low grade point average, feeling bored, unplanned working habit, unrealistic excuses, anxiety, fear of failure, depression, irrational thinking low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and low self-control 15, 23, 27, 33, 51.

Research revealed that individuals having internal locus of control were more successful in terms of academic achievement, self-motivation, time management, and personality traits 10, 18, 53, 68. Locus of control is defined as the beliefs that individuals perceived whether the positive and negative conditions or reward and punishment are the results of their own actions or the results of external powers 43.

Rotter 1989 examined humans under two groups impending external and internal control in terms of personality and defined internal controller individuals as believers to change their environment for their benefit and conclusions on academic procrastination among physical education controller individuals as persons believing that they are under the control of the environment 44.

While being internally controlled is a positive trait, being externally controlled is the opposite and constitutes obstacles in human life 68. Internal students who know that academic success is dependent upon them give more importance for every single detail to reach their goals 13. Thereby, it is understood that internal controlled individuals use time more effectively and react constructively when faced with obstacles 69.

  • With this regard, it is more likely to link their academic failure to their environment;
  • In this sense, an important limitation is that the interventions do not integrate complementary knowledge stemming from other orientations Klingsieck, 2013 , and there is a lack of contrasted knowledge about the proposed therapeutic interventions;
  • Procrastination, generalized or specific, in college students and their parents;
  • The Journal of Social Psychology, 149 2 , 241—257;
  • The GPA of the students were examined in two ranges as 1.

In this regard, internal controlled individuals will show less procrastination behavior. Self-efficacy, in progress of time, is a belief that develops through experiences. Academic self-efficacy is defined as the beliefs of students to their abilities for successfully completing an academic task 72. In related literature, there are some results showing that academic procrastination tendency increases provided that the belief that the student can accomplish many things decreases 27, 31, 56, 60, 61, 66.

However, there are no studies conducted by the participation of athletes in a certain sport branch and those studying at university. With this regard, the aim of this study is to examine locus of academic control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy of the athletes participating in the university sports games in terms of academic achievement specifically pertaining to grade point average GPAsport branches, and gender.

The mean age scores of the athletes were found to be 21. Demographic information about the athletes is displayed in Table 1. Demographic Information about the athletes In Table 1, of the participants, 37. Most of the participants are students in faculty of sports sciences 78.

The GPA of the students were examined in two ranges as 1. The mean score of GPA was found to be 2. Data Collection Tool Academic locus of control, academic self-efficacy, academic procrastination, and the personal information form were used to collect data, respectively.

Relations Between Student Procrastination and Teaching Styles: Autonomy-Supportive and Controlling

The scale is a 5-point Likert type. Test-retest correlation coefficient was found to be. The higher scores of the scale refer to higher level of academic procrastination.

The scale, conducted to 647 university students, has two sub-scales as academic internal locus of control and academic external locus of control, is a 5-point Likert type and has 17 items.

Internal consistency reliability coefficients of internal and external academic locus of control were found to be. It can be said that the higher scores in external and internal subscales refer to higher levels in related features of students and the scale has no reverse item.

Internal consistency reliability coefficients of academic internal and external locus of control were found to be. Validity and reliability studies were done by the participation of 672 university students. The scale is one-dimensional and a 4-point Likert type, and has 7 items. In this conclusions on academic procrastination among physical education, this value was found to be.

Data Collection The data was collected by researchers. Data Analysis Collected data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. The results of Kolmogorov-Smirnov normal distribution test showed that the data has normal distribution.

In addition to descriptive analysis, a t-test for two-variable comparison and the Person correlation for relationship between variables were used. Athletes having a high level of GPA reported higher level of internal academic locus of control and academic self-efficacy and low level of external academic locus of control and academic procrastination when compared to athletes having low level of GPA.

The following is a report of the relationships between these variables. In this study, external academic locus of control and academic procrastination of male athletes were found to be higher than females. Similar results were found in the studies conducted in Turkey 51, 2, 6, 7, 25, 26, 29, 64. There are studies reporting that there are no significant differences between genders in terms of academic locus of control 19, 22, 46, 45.

Introduction

There are studies reporting that male students have higher scores in internal academic locus of control than females 58, 48, 67. In this study, no significant difference was found between genders in terms of academic self-efficacy. As it is seen, different results were found between genders in terms of internal and external academic locus of control. It can be said that these differences stem from the sample group.

In this study, it was found that athletes having a high level of academic success reported a higher level of internal academic locus of control and academic self-efficacy and a lower level of external academic locus of control and academic procrastination when compared to athletes having low levels of academic success.

  • In this respect, one of the central characteristics of procrastination — the lack of self-regulation — has been explained in motivational terms and more specifically in relation to self-determined motivation Lee, 2005 ; Steel, 2007;
  • A Thesis University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg;
  • Understanding of computers and procrastination;
  • Golzar 2006 concluded that internally controlled students were more successful to take responsibility and accordingly in academic experiences 24.

Nunn and Nunn 1993 found positive and high-level correlation between academic successes of individuals having internal locus of control 37.

Furthermore, Anderson et al. The results of the studies in literature support this research. In this study, while doing individual and team sports had no impacts on academic locus of control, academic procrastination, and academic self-efficacy, athletes doing team sports reported higher scores in external academic locus of control than individual athletes. This result can be explained in this way: With this, it can be said that athletes participation in team sports have a more active social life and benefit from the opportunities to spend time with their friends when compared to individual athletes.

With this regard, it is more likely to link their academic failure to their environment. In this study, positive and midlevel correlations were found between external academic locus of control and academic procrastination, and internal academic locus of control and academic self-efficacy. Research revealed that individuals having high level of self-efficacy beliefs displayed less academic procrastination behaviors 31, 56, 66, 2. Whereas Brownlow and Reasinger 2000 found that university students having external locus of control displayed more academic procrastination tendencies 12Carton 1999 reported that students having internal locus of control showed less academic procrastination 14.

Golzar 2006 concluded that internally controlled students were more successful to take responsibility and accordingly in academic experiences 24. Consequently, it can be said that the belief of individuals, linking the reasons of their experiences, to deal with every condition they will face in the future increases.

The results of the studies support these findings. Athletes participating in team sports reported higher external locus of control. Whereas, those having a higher level of grade point average reported to be internally controlled, to have higher level of academic self-efficacy, and lower level of academic procrastination tendency.

While external locus of control scores increase, academic procrastination increases, and academic self-efficacy increases while internal conclusions on academic procrastination among physical education locus of control increases. University students doing individual and team sports train throughout the year and participate in competitions. Correspondingly, they have challenges attending classes, they postpone their academic task and as a result, they fall behind in the class. Because students falling behind in the class due to absenteeism are not able to complete their academic task, their academic self-efficacy is affected negatively, they see problems stemming from themselves or external reasons.

Accordingly, it is important to examine academic self-efficacy, academic procrastination behaviors, and academic locus of control of university student athletes and relationships between there concepts to increase their achievement.

Improvements can be made by overcoming the inadequate aspects of student athletes in the direction of these results. Psychological counselor help can be provided for students to overcome procrastination behaviors, to develop internal locus of control, academic self-efficacy, and problem-solving skills. Academic self-efficacy levels and academic success of student athletes can be increased by organizing seminars and courses related to locus of control and time management.

  • The average age of athletes is 21;
  • Exploring academic procrastination among Turkish students;
  • Self-efficacy, in progress of time, is a belief that develops through experiences;
  • The mean age scores of the athletes were found to be 21;
  • In related studies, it was found that academic procrastination behaviors correlated with forgetting project delivery time, delaying to prepare for exams, and low academic success 11, 16, 34, 42, 65.

It is suggested that future studies should include a wide sample group of athletes and examine the effects of doing a certain sport on academic procrastination, academic locus of control, and academic self-efficacy. Moreover, it is important to conduct studies related to having academic procrastination decreased and having internal locus of control and academic self-efficacy increase.

These types of studies should target to develop problem solving skills. Is moderation the key to success? Educational Psychology, 25 5517-535. Toward a unifying theory Of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84 2191. Correlates and consequences of behavioral procrastination: The effects of academic procrastination, self-consciousness, self-esteem and self-handicapping. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 15 53. Psychological antecedents of student procrastination. Australian psychologist, 23 2207-217.

Putting off until tomorrow what is better done today: Academic procrastination as a function of motivation toward college work.