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Case study 8 1 his team gets

Community Forestry Case Study 10: Tree and Land Tenure: It offers just one example of how and why tenure research might be carried out. In this instance, the case study was part of a larger research effort to inform a policy debate in Madagascar on whether and how national land legislation should be amended to promote a more sustainable use of the country's resources. This was, in turn, part of a larger programme to devise policies case study 8 1 his team gets with Madagascar's Environmental Action Plan.

In other situations, tenure research might be carried out to help a project better understand how to reinforce villagers' own resource management efforts or whether latent tenure conflicts risk jeopardizing a project's development activities. All three publications emphasize that while there are methodological principles to be followed, there are no formulas for how to do Rapid Appraisal. Readers are asked, therefore, not to use this case as a model for what a Rapid Appraisal should look like, but rather to view it as an example of how the panoply of techniques that comprise the methodology can be combined in a systematic process to gather information on tenure and resource management.

Six chapters tell two stories in one. The first is the tale of how a team of Malagasy and U.

  1. These include setting clear guiding objectives that will orient the team's activities in the field, selecting the research team and identifying the site where the study will take place. It creates a rapport with the village that allows more delicate and controversial subjects to be broached in a sensitive and non-confrontational way.
  2. These women prepared the meals each day and were compensated for their services.
  3. They would receive word within the next three days on whether the study would take place in their village and those selected would receive information on the arrival of the teams.
  4. In short, the RRA method requires that a diverse group of researchers use a diverse set of tools to explore the diverse views and experiences of a community.
  5. The principal focus of the case study is on methodological issues, however, and so the last chapter steps back again to put the spotlight on RRA, addressing, in particular, the strengths and limitations of the methodology, using the Anivorano case study to illustrate some of the concerns that have been raised by both practitioners and critics.

This is the theme of chapters 2 and 3, which take the reader step-by-step through the process that was used to carry out an RRA in the village of Anivorano in June 1993. Chapter 2 discusses the preparations that were made before the team went to the field, and chapter 3 follows the fieldwork chronologically, walking the reader systematically through the activities that were carried out each day. The second story is about what the team learned as it carried out these techniques in the field.

This is the subject of chapters 4 and 5, which assemble the information obtained using different RRA tools into a story about resource management in a hillside village. Interactions between the customary and the state tenure systems are explored as the study attempts to understand the pressures that are leading to the rapid destruction of the forest in Anivorano. It is hoped that with the methodology used to collect the information presented side by side with the study's findings, the reader will get a better feel for RRA's potential to gather practical and usable information of this kind.

The principal focus of the case study is on methodological issues, however, and so the last chapter steps back again to put the spotlight on RRA, addressing, in particular, the strengths and limitations of the methodology, using the Anivorano case study to illustrate some of the concerns that have been raised by both practitioners and critics. The context Since the late 1980s, both the Government of Madagascar and the donor community have become increasingly concerned about the management of natural resources on the island, which is the fourth largest in the world.

Madagascar has a unique ecosystem, host to an extraordinary richness of biological diversity, including nearly 8000 endemic species of flowering plants Wright 1993. Nevertheless, much of the native vegetation has been lost as forests have been cleared, primarily for logging and agriculture. The diminishing forests of Madagascar are a concern to local people, to the national government and to the international community. Locally, people's well-being is inextricably tied to the natural resource base, whether used as a source of food, medicines or fuel.

Nationally, the government worries about such issues as the effects of deforestation on watersheds, changes in soil fertility that will affect the case study 8 1 his team gets ability to produce food and the impact on foreign exchange when export products, such as wood, are used up. International concerns focus on questions of the declining biodiversity as plant and animal niches are destroyed through the clearing of ancient forests.

Many of Madagascar's plants are highly valued for medicinal purposes in the West as well as locally. Concern with the declining resource base has led to increased efforts to understand the causes and consequences of forest clearing. Researchers are working to understand the incentives and motivations pushing people to cut forests. With this information, policy makers and development workers can think about how to change the incentives so that communities find it more advantageous to protect forests than to cut them.

Information about a community's resource management systems is particularly needed when governments are considering policy changes e. Without understanding the rationale behind local practices, the policy changes may have unintended and even counterproductive effects. Case study 8 1 his team gets potential example of such a "backward incentive" was noted in this study.

Case Study 8.1: His Team Gets the Best Assignments Essay

Often people assume, for example, that formal, government-supervised titling of individual land parcels will increase the holder's tenure security.

It is supposed that this will, in turn, lead the titled owner to invest and intensify production on agricultural lands, thereby diminishing the practice of more extensive production practices, which put pressure on forests. With the encouragement of some donors, titling is now being considered in Madagascar, and pilot titling programmes have actually begun in some areas. By looking carefully at existing tenure systems and resource-management practices, this study was able to predict that titling of private land-at least in this particular community-was very likely to produce just the opposite effect and lead to even more rapid clearing of the remaining forested area.

The reasons for this are discussed in chapter 5. As Madagascar continues to debate environmental policy reforms, research at many levels has an case study 8 1 his team gets role to play in informing the discussion. The case study presented here was part of a larger research project 1 investigating land and resource tenure issues and their relationship to natural resource management practices and the conservation of biodiversity in and around Madagascar's protected areas.

In addition to this case study village, seven other sites are being studied in order to understand the perspectives and practices of local resource users in different areas of the country.

The information gathered from these studies will be discussed in national policy workshops as questions of titling and other resource management policies are reviewed. As ministry officials, representatives of international pharmaceutical companies, wildlife experts, donors and development workers debate these issues, research from RRAs such as this one will help to ensure that the views and concerns of village people are also represented in the debate.

Methodology A wide variety of methods can be used to conduct research under diverse conditions in order to meet different objectives. These include highly quantitative techniques, such as survey methods, as well as more qualitative approaches, including anthropological studies.

The former is most often used by outsiders conducting research in an area, while the latter is more commonly used by local people, sometimes in conjunction with outsiders, conducting research for their own planning purposes. Every research method, whether quantitative or qualitative, has strengths and weaknesses.

The key to getting the best results lies, therefore, in choosing the method best suited to the type of information sought and to the conditions in which the information will be gathered, analysed and used. Often, because different methods are suited to different uses and conditions, it makes sense to combine several methods, using each where it is most appropriate. In the year-long research study of which this case is just one part several methods were combined.

In each village, or group of villages, an RRA 3 was first conducted. These RRAs typically lasted 7-10 days and provided a core around which other activities took place. The total time spent in each village was 14-21 days. In addition to gathering highly useful information, during the RRA the research team built a rapport with the community which facilitated the other research activities.

Rapid Rural Appraisal is a qualitative, participatory research methodology, most often used to gather and analyse information in rural communities. In RRA, multidisciplinary teams of researchers from different backgrounds conduct studies of carefully defined issues, generally in short, intensive field studies. RRA uses a variety of tools and techniques to gather information.

All its tools are designed to promote the participation of local people in both the collection and the analysis of information. The tools approach questions from different angles, however.

Some are particularly helpful in addressing spatial issues, some gather more temporal information, and others help local people to analyse their situation by ranking issues or problems.

Just as care is needed when matching a research methodology to the kind of study being done, so within RRA the most appropriate tool is selected for each type of case study 8 1 his team gets needed to meet the study's objectives. RRA insists that diverse perspectives should be explored within the community studied. Villages, like other communities, represent many diverse interests depending on gender, social and economic standing, sources of livelihood, etc. It is important that the views of different groups and interests be explored in order to fully understand issues as complex as resource use patterns in a community.

In short, the RRA method requires that a diverse group of researchers use a diverse set of tools to explore the diverse views and experiences of a community. This diversification of perspectives at the level of the researcher, the informant and the means of communication which links them together is called triangulation.

Triangulation is a core principle of RRA because, on the one hand, it is the primary strategy used to avoid bias in the research results and, on the other hand, it considerably enriches the quality of the data collected.

Following the RRA, a brief survey was conducted and questionnaires were administered to 30 randomly selected households in the community.

Geo-reference points were also taken in each study area to tie the qualitative information to specific latitude and longitude points and to facilitate future monitoring of changes in the vegetative cover.

In addition to these methods, follow-up focus groups and more in-depth interviews were carried out on topics identified as issues of particular importance in the RRA and secondary information was collected from a wide variety of sources. This combination of methodologies permitted the team to case study 8 1 his team gets each method where it was the strongest. RRA, for example, is excellent at getting rich qualitative information and encourages the researcher to respond to local concerns and adapt the approach to local issues.

It creates a rapport with the village that allows more delicate and controversial subjects to be broached in a sensitive and non-confrontational way. It is also case study 8 1 his team gets effective at probing deeply in order to understand why certain practices are followed and to explore the logic behind those practices. These are areas where questionnaires, which are often limited to close-ended responses, often cannot elicit good information. RRA is not so effective, however, at gathering standardized information that can be systematically compared across communities or at different time intervals.

This is where quantitative techniques-surveys for social science information and geo-referencing for monitoring the vegetative cover-can complement the qualitative and participatory approaches.

The surveys assure that a certain core set of issues are approached in a way that permits systematic comparison of all the sites that comprise the data set. This monograph presents a case study of a single Rapid Rural Appraisal. This RRA was the first activity in the year-long research project described above and preceded the research in the seven sites that were chosen later for more complete analysis.

This initial RRA was carried out so that the team could practise RRA techniques and clarify the objectives and working hypotheses it would use during the remainder of the study.

In the actual case reported here, then, RRA was used by itself and not in conjunction with either surveys or geo-referencing as would follow in the remaining sites of the study.

  • The objectives focus the activities of the team and guide their questions so that at the end of the time in the field, they have spent the most time on the issues of greatest concern and have not wasted time looking at questions that have little relevance to the study;
  • With this information, policy makers and development workers can think about how to change the incentives so that communities find it more advantageous to protect forests than to cut them;
  • For each objective, the research is interested not only in what is happening in the present, but also in how things have changed over time;
  • For each objective, the research should explore the factors affecting how an individual interacts with the resource base;
  • Definitely, organizations stand to gain much from having leaders who can create good working relationship.

In the case study, the reader will find out first what the team had to do to prepare for the field study and then how diverse tools were used to gather different pieces case study 8 1 his team gets information that eventually fit together into a kind of jigsaw puzzle of tenure and resource management in the study village.

In the resulting picture, the key issues confronting local resource management are clearly discernible. Without their excellent work, as well as the lively interest and dynamic participation of the villagers of Anivorano, this report would not have been possible.

It was RRA because the approach was essentially elicitative: The villagers participated in many important ways, but they participated was principally as respondents in activities that the team designed. The villagers were not in charge of the process, nor was the information gathered primarily for local planning purposes, as it would have been in a PRA study. Preliminaries to the Field Study Before the actual visit to the village for the field research in an RRA study, there are several preliminary steps that are critical to the success of the endeavour.

These include setting clear guiding objectives that will orient the team's activities in the field, selecting the case study 8 1 his team gets team and identifying the site where the study will take place. In the particular study illustrated by this case, two teams of people went to two neighbouring villages.

This was done in part to have a larger sample and in part to enable more people to be trained in the methodology. Since the activities and results of the two studies were very similar, only the case from the village of Anivorano will be reported on here.

Selecting the team In RRA, a key consideration in selecting members of the team is ensuring that the researchers bring diverse perspectives to the study. This is important for triangulation. This can lead to biases in the information that is collected. For example, a team of only men may, without even thinking about it, put more emphasis on looking at how men use resources than what women do.

A group composed only of social scientists may not even notice certain patterns, such as the absence of younger trees, that would indicate a problem with resource regeneration. Because of this, RRA makes a special effort to combine individuals with different backgrounds, training and skills on the same team. This helps both to neutralize the biases of individual members and to enrich the information that is collected. The members of this particular team were selected in order to triangulate several factors.