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Carl roger person centered therapy p c t

Five decades of psychotherapy outcome research now clearly identify the factors that contribute to successful client outcome. I maintain that the two labels are not different and that both terms refer to the theory proposed by Carl Rogers.

Periodically, the terms are used interchangeably in this book. Another author suggests that there is no one set of necessary and sufficient conditions and that various interventions are needed at various times for various clients. Others have consistently resounded the same theme; i.

The basic position is that the therapist trusts the actualizing tendency of the client and truly believes that the client who experiences the freedom of a fostering psychological climate will resolve his or her own problems. The therapy developed by Carl Rogers must be understood within the context of the theory espoused by Rogers.

The process is, in essence, that of dismissing the fundamental assumptions of the approach of the actualizing tendency and the self-authority of the client as untenable or questionable and proceeding with criticism of the theory from other theoretical frames of reference. The position taken is embedded to varying degrees in the assumption of the therapist as the expert for the treatment and behavior change of the client. Fay and Lazarus are replete in their amazement of a different way of relating to people when they sarcastically state: Ironically, this is essentially correct.

  1. Therapist congruence, or genuineness. Concentrate on what they are really saying Sometimes this will not be clear at the outset.
  2. This is because they see the therapist and client as equal partners rather than as an expert treating a patient.
  3. Others have consistently resounded the same theme; i.
  4. Congruence is the most important attribute in counseling, according to Rogers.

The theory is not one that applies certain conditions the way one applies dosages of drugs to a person in an effort to finalize a treatment plan. The therapy is a human endeavor that trusts the growth of each individual, and wherein the therapist resonates in person to person ways. The theories developed by Rogers are the same basic assumptions for either label.

This way of being trusts the constructive directional flow of the human being toward a more complex and complete development. It is this directional flow that we aim to release.

Person-centered therapy

Actualization is the motivational construct in organismic theory and, thus, is embedded in the organismic growth process and is the motive for change. Although Rogers focused on the self-concept in earlier writings and brings in the concept of the formative tendency of the universe in later writings, the construct of the actualizing tendency for the human being is the clear foundation block in individual therapy.

This value emphasizes the internal i. Clients are viewed as going in their own ways, allowed to go at their own pace, and to pursue their growth in their unique ways. This process is a directional, growth directed process that includes movement towards realization, fulfillment and perfection of inherent capabilities and potentialities of the individual Rogers, 1963. It is a selective process in that it is directional and constructive.

A summary of the theory can be stated as follows: The therapist experiences and manifests three basic attitudes in the relationship. In the integration statement of 1957, he stated: Two persons are in psychological contact.

The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.

  • Short pauses where the client and you have time to reflect on the direction of the session can also be useful;
  • The attitudinal qualities of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence described in various ways were the consistent therapist attitudes that existed; 2;
  • Rogers believed that for people to grow and fulfill their potential it is important that they are valued as themselves;
  • Accept negative emotions Some clients may have negative feelings about themselves, their family or even you;
  • How you speak can be more important than what you say It is possible to convey a great deal through your tone of voice.

The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client. He continued to emphasize the importance of the client perceiving these two attitudinal experiences of the therapist. Rogers, in his classic delineation of a theory of psychotherapy, personality and interpersonal relationships imn 1959, hypothesized that in the psychotherapeutic relationship that the more fully and consistently the therapeutic attitudes are provided by the therapist and perceived by the client, the greater the constructive movement that will occur in the client.

When the therapist can consistently be a certain way i. The natural growth process of the individual is promoted when the therapist can be a certain way by embodying certain attitudinal qualities. The therapist strives to be congruent, to experience unconditional positive regard and empathic understanding toward the client. He adds that the client must perceive these two conditions, at least, to a minimal degree. In therapy, the foundation block of the theory is the actualizing tendency; i.

In addition, the self-actualizing tendency is promoted in a way that is harmonious with the experiencing of the actualizing organism. It is the full commitment ". The therapist and client participants responded to questions from the investigator.

  1. Try to work through their aggression without taking offence, but do not put up with personal abuse.
  2. And, what changes occurred?
  3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated in the relationship.
  4. The counseling psychologist, 5 2 , 2-10. The therapists did not attempt to intervene in the direction, process, or with the pace of the clients.

The emerging consensual data were the following: Therapists had a wide repertoire of non-interfering responses. The clients perceived the therapists as being helpful; the clients overall directed themselves in the process of inquiry.

At times, they waited for the therapists to finish responses before continuing with their own explorations. The listeners perceived the therapists as disappearing in deference to their clients.

Their presence appeared obvious but there was neither intervention nor intrusion of the personality of the therapist Bower and Bozarth, 1988.

Person Centered Therapy

The overriding conclusion was that: In brief, the study also suggested that: The attitudinal qualities of empathy, unconditional positive regard, and congruence described in various ways were the consistent therapist attitudes that existed; 2. The therapists had a wide range of response repertoire and personality characteristics but were intent upon understanding and checking their understandings of their clients; and 5.

The therapists did not attempt to intervene in the direction, process, or with the pace of the clients. Did Carl Rogers change his operational functioning as a psychotherapist? It was my intent to further ask: What were these alterations? And, what changes occurred? My basic thought had been that there was significant alteration of some fundamental views; and that his functioning as a therapist had changed over the years. I noted that he was quite consistent in his fundamental views of the importance of the conditions of empathy and unconditional positive regard that congruent therapists needed to experience with their clients, and of his dedication to go with his clients in the direction that the client wanted to go and in the way the client wished to do it.

The importance of genuineness which Rogers periodically interchanged with congruence as the primary condition to him was expressed in a dialogue with Wood and in an earlier statement when he commented that even when the conditions of unconditional positive regard and empathy were not experienced by the therapist that genuineness alone may be facilitative Rogers, 1967; Rogers and Wood, 1984. His more explicit references to the importance of genuineness in the relationship did not represent any fundamental change in view.

Rogers and Segal, 1955; Shostrum, 1964; Rogers, 1975. He did not significantly change his operational functioning as a psychotherapist Bozarth, 1990a. A more holistic viewing of the films and tapes was interpreted as suggesting that Rogers allowed himself to be more expressive over the years. It also seems likely that his varied comments as a therapist over the time period were more client- and situation-specific.

These reviews lead me to conclude with a functional theoretical premise that: The therapist can not be up to other things, have other intentions without violating the essence of PCT. This holds true if the therapist is trying to move the client through a certain process, to encourage clients to experience themselves in a certain way, to teach clients to be empathic, or to impose other therapeutic methods on the client.

It is thus that therapists can experience the potency of allowing individuals to engage in their own empowerment, in carl roger person centered therapy p c t own ways without being violated by the personal observations and theories of their therapists.

Implications of this theoretical stance are integrally related to the concept of the locus of control. The therapist is promoting a natural individual and general process in the client by being a certain way; that is, experiencing certain attitudes toward the client.

  • Rogers identified six conditions which are needed to produce personality changes in clients;
  • Joyce is considering leaving teaching and becoming a professional dancer.

The only therapist goal is to be a certain way and by being that way a natural growth process is promoted in the client.

That is, the person of the client must be the master and director for successful outcome.