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Ap world compare and contrast river valley

It is because rivers are an incredibly source of water for agriculture, irrigation, fertile soil, transportation, and trade. Everything humans needed to start a civilization was near rivers.

From about 5,000 years ago, urban societies developed, laying the foundations for the first civilizations. While there were many differences between civilizations, they also shared important features. They all produced agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor. All civilizations contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies.

They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as well as with nomadic pastoralists. As populations grew, competition for surplus resources, especially food, led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping.

As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility.

Some of the river valley civilizations we will be studying are: While food was plentiful, or in surplus, within these river valley civilizations, that doesn't always mean they were varied. Trade in food was complex in the fact that we were limited in how far they could reach. Places like Egypt could trade upstream with their Nubian neighbors while simultaneously trade with their regional neighbors, Mesopotamia.

Mesopotamia traded with Egypt and its farther east neighbor, the Indus River Valley of Harappa; while Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro developed in the same region but show little connection through trade or culture. Wheat, barley used to create beerflax, lentilspeas. Animals included cattle, donkey, goat milked for dairy productspig sheep. Wheat, barley, milletpeanuts, sorghumtef.

Large animals include cattle. Through trade with Nubia, Egyptians could also get melons, figs, pomegranates. Through trade they also trades gold and lumber. Same as the Shang. All food must be Kosher, prepared in a certain way, in accordance to dietary law. Food must be ritually blessed and cleaned, must be prepared by Jews. Reptiles, amphibians, animals with pads cats, dogs are not on the menu! Sea animals include any that have fins and scales this excludes catfish and crustaceans because traditionally they are the most infested with disease and parasites.

Birds of prey and scavengers are not on the menu! Eating blood is also a no no! Clearing the Air on Kosher! Given credit for creating the first forms of writing, the invention of the wheel, the sundial, a base number of 60 which we use to tell time and calculate ap world compare and contrast river valley, and first use of metal tools such as the plow.

They also had the power to shape their environment through irrigation canals from rivers. They had access to iron and soon became a dominant force within Anatolia. During Egypt's New Kingdom, and the peak of Mitanni and Hurrian forces, the Hittites were trying to gain supremacy from these power kingdoms. Created the 365 day calendar. Pushed forward geometry and advanced engineering because of their complex structures and mega structures.

They created some of the best funerary techniques, called embalming, to preserve their dead. They created ink and paper from papyrus to record their history. Evidence from Harappa and Mohenjo Daro tell us that these cities had developed over 400 miles apart but created a sewage system that could drain waste under streets into the outskirts of the city.

Cities were oriented to catch a breeze. Roads were neat amd orderly. Valued bronze more than anything, even gold. Created the first crossbow for the battle field.

States were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas. The reasons for kings claiming that they were part god and divine in nature is so they could exert POWER over their subjects.

This creates a sense of awe and obedience, legitimizing ruler's power, decisions, and actions. The most common form of government within this period of time is a monarchy. When kings claim they are gods and representations of everything divine here on earth, then we see a different form of government, theocracy. Pharaohs would create dynasties, or family line of kings, to further their dominance over Egypt. They were expected to act like the Nile, calm, good, collected.

Claimed divine heritage from the god Horus. We assume that these people followed the monarchy system of government. City planning is involved, so there ap world compare and contrast river valley some form of zoning law. Emperors, name for their rulers, created a dynasty based off of a royal blood line.

The Zhou followed the Shang in creating emperors from dynasties, which granted them the divine right to rule based off the Mandate of Heaven. Follow 613 commandments as written in the Tanakh, but the Ten Commandments are the most important. A series of slash marks made upon clay. Some of the first things recorded are accounting receipts. Later gave birth to the Epic of Gilgamesh. Babylon is the first to write down their laws on a stele stone pillarcalled the Code of Hammurabi.

A series of pictures and symbols used for sacred writing on tombs, walls, monuments. The first time modern humans are able to crack both forms of writing is all thanks to Napoleon, who was following in the footsteps of his person hero Alexander the Great of Macedonia, journeyed into Egypt where his army literally stumbled across a piece of rock in 1799 that we lovingly call the Rosetta Stone.

Upon the stone was a treaty written in 3 languages: Greek, Hieroglyphs, and Demotic. We knew Greek so we could crack the other two parts of ap world compare and contrast river valley stone.

Egypt also wrote their own Book of the Deada funerary text. The Oracle bones were usually inscribed on turtle shells and animal bones. They were used to predict the future in the royal court. Also used a system of knot tying. Replaced knot tying with pictographs, the basis of early Chinese writings. There are hundreds of pictographs that represent words or sounds found on pottery, clay seals, yet none of them are deciphered.

Sacred text is the Tanakh, divided into 3 parts: Written in Hewbew and read from right to left.

River valley civilizations

Art usually depicted their gods and kings. Below is the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, inlaid with lapiz lazuli, capped with gold, it depicts two gods: Marduk, the wingless dragon, and the goddess of war and fertility Ishtar, as represented by the lion.

Below are examples of Akkadian and Assyrian carved reliefs. Egyptian art was stylized and hardly changed throughout their existence, largely due to the fact that they were so isolated and insulated from vast change.

Even when they were invaded, their invaders often assimilated into Egyptian culture because it was so long lasting. They had mega structures and statues such as temples, pyramids, and statues.

  1. Even when they were invaded, their invaders often assimilated into Egyptian culture because it was so long lasting.
  2. Emperors, name for their rulers, created a dynasty based off of a royal blood line. The first time modern humans are able to crack both forms of writing is all thanks to Napoleon, who was following in the footsteps of his person hero Alexander the Great of Macedonia, journeyed into Egypt where his army literally stumbled across a piece of rock in 1799 that we lovingly call the Rosetta Stone.
  3. Egyptian art was stylized and hardly changed throughout their existence, largely due to the fact that they were so isolated and insulated from vast change.
  4. They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. The Oracle bones were usually inscribed on turtle shells and animal bones.

They had a variety of drawings, frescos paintings on wallsand carvings. Their most decorated places were tombs and death masks the most famous being King Tut's.